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A STUDY OF ATTITUDE OF YOUTH TOWARDS EDUCATION PARE-URBAN AREA BUND ROAD LAHORE SUBMITTED BY

A STUDY OF ATTITUDE OF YOUTH TOWARDS EDUCATION PARE-URBAN AREA BUND ROAD LAHORE
SUBMITTED BY:
AMNA BUTT

ROLL # 09
M.PHIL SOCIOLOGY

DECLARATION
It is submitted that the research work carried out on the topic of A STUDY OF ATTITUDE OF YOUTH TOWARDS EDUCATION in PARE-URBAN AREA BUND ROAD LAHORE may please be accepted in respect of the degree of M Phil in sociology from department of social and cultural studied Punjab university Lahore.

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL
It is requested that research work carried out on A Study Of Attitude Of Youth Towards Education Pare-Urban Area Band Road Lahore may please be accepted as part of the degree of Phil in sociology.

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DEDICATED TO
It is dedicated to my mother / respectable teachers who blessed with their support that enabled me to overcome all my problems during research work.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all I would like to thank ALLAh. He enable me to complete the study. I am also thankful to worthy head of department of Sociology, University of Punjab LHR. Whose tremendous guidance enabled me to undertake the execution of this research project. I am also thankful to my Family. They encouraged me to complete the research work and grateful to the respondents who gave a chance to conduct this study. At the end, I am thankful to each/ every member who helped me during research process.

ABSTRACT
Youth are the back bone of any country. Youth is one ninth of all worlds’ population and about 60% lives in Asia and about 85% of the world youth live in developing countries. The present study is an attempt to look at the attitude Of youth towards education within the age group of 12 to 18 years. The study is conducted in pare-urban areas of bund road Lahore. A sample of 200 respondents 100 males / 100 female were taken through systematic random sampling. Intervening schedule was used as a tool of data collection .Data was analyzed descriptively as well as statically and conclusion was drawn. The research also recommended measures that should be initiated.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1
Introduction
Statement of the problem
Objective of the study
Research question
Chapter 2
Literature review
Role of parents
Social and economic issues of youth
Education in equality
Education system of Pakistan
Gender discrimination of society
Household inequality
Education inequality
Ownership inequality
Chapter 3
Research methodology
Chapter 4
Data analysis and finding and discussion
Chapter 5
Summary, conclusion and recommendation
References
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
YOUTH
United National – explain the definition of youth for statistical purposes. Those persons b/w the ages of 15 and 24 years of members’ state. Youth can be marked in various ways according to different cultural perspectives. Young people spend much of their lives in educational settings e.g. schools, colleges and universities. They can shape much of their subsequent live. The role of the youth in the nation building is crucial. They are problem solvers. They have the ability to move nation forward. Youth represent growing energy in all parts of life .youth depends on circumstances / environment which is provided by family and society. Across the world, majority of youth is not able to get education, they may have completed school, dropped out, and never started school. They may have job or be married or may be girls who have been forced to quit school because they need to work in home. They need shelter, a sense of connection or belonging or skills in problems solving/ life planning, information on health issues.
YOUTH IN PAKISTAN
Youth population in Pakistan is about 60percent of total population. That’s really great for the country. However that is not the full picture instead of having great proportion of the young population. Country is unable to get any benefit from it. Currently Pakistani youth is facing some issues and if these issues are not properly addressed then such a valuable resource will become a Burdon for the country instead of having Allah Blessings.

Today’s youth have more freedom to think, what they feel and can express their thoughts and ideas. In this innovative world of technology, they can easily get each every information whether that info is suitable for them or not. As we all know technology has totally changed our lives and our way of thinking. The immense use of internet has changed our society thinking.

Gender Discrimination in Youth
Discrimination is when the individual is not treated on merit but is given advantage over another. Gender discrimination is a social issue all over the world. In Pakistan, I believe it is a very common problem which leads to criminal activities.

Pakistan is a developing country. There is a lot of gender discrimination going on which needs to be looked upon. Girls are not treated fairly in their homes, schools and workplaces. They are discriminated at every step of their life .When a child is born the first question which the family asks is “Is it a girl or a boy”? If it is a boy, then the level of respect and love is so high for the mother but at the same time when a girl is born, the little angel is considered to be a burden for the family. Since childhood she is forced to accept the fact that her real house is her husband’s house .She spends half of her time in the kitchen cooking food for the family, cleaning dishes, whereas a boy is told to enjoy his life the way he wants to and do what so ever he feels like .There are no restrictions, no barriers, no instructions. In fact whatever a guy does becomes pride for the family while on the other hand if a girl stays out for a long time, it turns out to be a shameful for parents and family. This way the family is not only differentiating among the kids but also damaging their daughters’ confidence to move on in this society.

Gender discrimination is one of the major problems faced by Pakistan, amongst terrorism, intolerance and poverty. According to the Global Gender Gap Index, 2015, Pakistan stands at the bottom – 144 out of 145 countries in the world. The index, prepared annually by the World Economic Forum, examines the gap between men and women covering four fundamental aspects: economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment. It has resulted in girls being deprived of basic primary education, honor killings, inequality in job offers and wages etc. Gender inequality stems from the Pakistani social custom of placing sons above daughters as it is believed that males will grow up to work and sustain the house, while females will become housewives and stay at home. Men are perceived as the major providers and protectors of a family while women are perceived as playing only a supportive role, attending to the hearth. Boys and girls are accordingly trained for different adult roles, status and authority. This results in education for boys are being prioritized, while girls are forced to stay at home. A survey carried out in urban areas of Sindh showed 75.35%, of the survey respondents – the mothers of newborn babies, were of the opinion that their husbands and mother-in-law always wanted to have a son; however, 24.65% admitted that having son is their biggest desire. In many families, daughters are linked to severe economic and financial loss. One of the responding mothers informed that she works as an accountant in local office; she said that her brothers always mentioned the high expenses the family has borne upon her education and marriage. She added that it has been her untold duty to give water or press the clothes of her brother and now to her husband. “In my entire life neither my brother nor my husband ever give me water or press my clothes,” the mother of three children informed.

Youth Education in Pakistan
Currently, the majority of the population falls within the youth age bracket of 15-24 years. The country stands at a critical juncture, where it can capitalize on this demographic dividend for transformational and sustainable socioeconomic growth. However, there is inadequate intersection and convergence between Pakistan’s national and provincial Education and Youth policy frameworks. An indepth overview of current trends in terms of quality of education and access to and participation in various forms of education programmes indicates that the current provision of educational services is deplorably inadequate in terms of quality and quantity. In order to address the challenges of educational and economic development, education should be the lynchpin for broader and more inclusive socioeconomic development, and function as the interface between Youth and Education Policies. The failures of effective policy implementation and of fully integrating the interrelated issues relevant to the youth population produce unfavorable educational outcomes in terms of economic, political, and social engagement. So that the country can harness the energy and potential of youth population that currently constitutes about two-thirds of the Pakistani population.

Social economic issues of youth in Pakistan
Pakistan has a large youth population. An estimated 103 million or 63 per cent of the population fall under the age of 25 years. Due to endemic poverty, the majority of youth in Pakistan do not have the opportunity to experience a childhood. Male youth literacy rate is estimated to be 53 per cent and female youth literacy rate is even lower at 42 per cent, while 15 per cent of the youth is unemployed.

The most profound problem our youth is facing at present is frustration. This monster is eating up our youth slowly and gradually. The youth in Pakistan don’t have jobs, means of healthy entertainment, health resources and awareness. The frustration as a result of multitude problems is increasing day by day.

Another major problem faced by our youth is unemployment. After completing their education, they find no job to utilize their skills to serve their country. This is the result of government’s inability to utilize youth in a proper manner. Deteriorating conditions are also responsible for low investment in the country, resulting in fewer job opportunities. Unemployment is a multi-dimensional and complex issue which starts a vicious circle of associated problems like involvement of youth in radical politics, bank and household burglaries, social insecurity, lawlessness, and use of drugs.

Poverty is another major problem of our youth. Due to lack of resources they are unable to get quality education and pursue their field of interest. Poverty is a sort of disease which is weakening our youth. They are unable to fully use their talent and serve their country.

Furthermore, pressure from parents and a rigid system is also a bolt from blue to our youth. Social taboos hinder our youth from freely deciding about their future. They cannot follow their dreams. This leads them to escape from their responsibilities towards their parents and their country.

Despite the multiplicity of problems, it is still a right time for government to take some pragmatic steps. Of the 15 largest countries in the world in terms of population, Pakistan has by far the youngest population. Government should not regard the young population as a burden but an asset. We need to bear in mind that “the destiny of nations is in the hands of youth”.

Youth Policies in Pakistan
At the national level, the last policy for youth (15–29 years) was formulated in 2008. Since then, under the 18th Constitutional Amendment, matters of youth development have been devolved to provincial governments, precluding the need for a national youth policy. With respect to administration, currently no federal ministry or other national level organization or association has been mandated to spearhead efforts for youth. However, all provinces have developed their youth policies, essentially on the pattern of the 2008 national policy. The youth policies of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have been approved (in 2012 and 2016, respectively) but Sindh and Balochistan still have draft policies (dated 2016 and 2015, respectively). These youth policies have been developed by the provincial departments of “Youth Affairs, Sports, Archaeology and Tourism” in Punjab, “Environment, Sports and Youth Affairs” in Balochistan, “Sports, Tourism, Culture, Archaeology, Museums and Youth Affairs” in KP, and “Sports and Youth Affairs” in Sindh.

A positive aspect of these policies is that they recognize the pressure of the youth bulge, as well as the inherent opportunity of a demographic dividend. Also encouraging is the coverage of multiple spheres of development in the policies, including economic, social, health, and education, as well as political development and volunteerism, with 25 the stated intention of empowering youth. This is an improvement over past policies, the focus of which tended to be limited to reproductive health, sports, and education.

However, there are some continuing weaknesses in the present youth policies. The first major weakness pertains to scope: while the policies generally reflect adequate appreciation of the need to address and engage youth in economic development, skill development, education, and political development, other important areas, such as general health, family planning, life skills, social security and financial support, are either missing or only superficially dealt with.

The current youth policies are generally blind to differences of gender, wealth, urban/rural residence, and age among youth. As the discussion in the previous section indicates, this near-absence of segmentation can only lead to blunt strategies that are unlikely to work. However, there are some noteworthy exceptions. The draft youth policy of Balochistan expresses a greater awareness of gender disparities through its special focus on education, employment, and credit opportunities for young women. Likewise, in Punjab, the draft “Adolescent (10-19 years) Strategy and Strategic Plan 2013-17” reflects the government’s awareness of the special needs of adolescents and younger youth, albeit only with respect to awareness of sexual and reproductive health issues. The other three provinces have not given any special attention to this crucial age group, which is of concern.

A third major issue is the apparent gap between the aims expressed in the youth policies, and the strategies proposed to achieve those aims. In some cases, the strategies indicated in the documents are inadequate for achieving stated objectives. For example, the aim of empowering youth is conservatively linked with raising awareness amongst youth about their rights, with no further steps defined to provide youth an enabling environment to broaden their vision, explore their potentials, or participate in platforms where they have a say. Similarly, strategies for providing employment opportunities to youth are insufficient and limited to providing small loans, internships, and entrepreneurship opportunities, creating job banks, etc., missing the larger picture of how to mainstream youth in the job market and create opportunities to absorb the burgeoning young male and female work force. Unless this broader issue is addressed, the steps to support youth employment are unlikely to have any significant effects in coming years. For some challenges, policies indicate a very broad approach and fail to chalk out a clear strategy. This is especially apparent in the issue of age at marriage, for which policies claim that “measures” will be taken to implement the law but do not specify any further details; indeed, Balochistan’s draft policy hardly talks about this subject. Another likely stumbling block to implementation is the lack of linkages and integration of youth policies with the main development strategies, such as Vision 2025 and related provincial policies, strategies and plans.
An encouraging recent example of a youth-specific law is the ordinance issued by the Punjab government on July 2016, which bans the employment of children (15-18 years) in hazardous occupations. This law also seeks to protect children and adolescents against any form of slavery, such as their sale and human or drug trafficking, debt bondage and serfdom, and prostitution (Government of Punjab, 2016)
ATTITUDE OF YOUTH TOWARDS THEIR PROBLEMS
Youth is the backbone of the nation. Symbolically it represents hope and strength. Unfortunately in our country youth has been wronged at many levels. Consequently, the hope and strength of the nation has suffered a serious blow. Due to the tremendous rate of unemployment, inflation and energy crisis and no life security, the psychological pressure on youth has increased manifolds. The economic pressure further leads to oppressing need for jobs security and reasonable learning opportunities. The absence of this factor pushes youth into the abyss of depression. As a result, a negative attitude towards life is springing up among youth. The destructive trends like drug addiction, alcoholism and smoking ash are strengthening its root among youth. This depression has not only affected from lower income group but the middle class and the elite have also been affected. Unfortunately, there is no proper outlet for the youth went out their depressive thoughts. So, they resort to illegal and destructive channels.It is therefore essential that authorities take this issue seriously and take substantial steps to lift up the spirit of youth, which constitute 65 percent population of the country. Youth is the blood running through the vein of the nation and if it is not taken care of, the whole nation will suffer immensely.

If comparison is done between today’s youth and past youth, we will find a different between past and future youth. Today’s youth are more advance and developed from the past youth use to be. According to a survey 21-25 years of age youth have different attitude towards life than in the past. According to 72% of people agree that today’s youth are selfish and do not prompt to work quickly, but they expect much without putting any effort in working or doing things.

Today’s youth have more freedom to think, what they feel and can express their thoughts and ideas. In this innovative world of technology, they can easily get each every information whether that info is suitable for them or not. As we all know technology has totally changed our lives and our way of thinking. The immense use of internet has changed our society thinking.

WORLD YOUTH PROGRAM
The United Nations youth agenda is guided by the World Programme of Action for Youth (WPAY).The WPAY, adopted by the General Assembly in 1995, provides a policy framework and practical guidelines for national action and international support to improve the situation of young people around the world. The WPAY covers fifteen youth priority areas and contains proposals for action in each of these areas.

Each of the fifteen priority areas identified by the international community is presented in terms of principal issues, specific objectives and the actions proposed to be taken by various actors to achieve those objectives. Objectives and actions reflect the three themes of the first International Youth Year: Participation, Development, Peace in 1985; they are interlinked and mutually reinforcing.

The fifteen fields of action identified by the international community are education, employment, hunger and poverty, health, environment, substance abuse, juvenile justice, leisure-time activities, girls and young women and the full and effective participation of youth in the life of society and in decision-making, as well as globalization, information and communication technologies, HIV/AIDS, armed conflict, and intergenerational issues.

Implementation of the Programme of Action requires the full enjoyment by young people of all human rights and fundamental freedoms, and also requires that Governments take effective action against violations of these rights and freedoms and promote non-discrimination, tolerance, respect for diversity, with full respect for various religious and ethical values, cultural backgrounds and philosophical convictions of their young people, equality of opportunity, solidarity, security and participation of all young women and men.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Education is considered a key to change a nation. It is education who open the door for individual. In this study, we try to find out the attitude due to which youth is out of school in pare urban area of band road, Lahore.
1.3 OBJECTIVES:
The main objectives are as follow
To study family attitude and thinking.

To understand the social economic reasons that build their attitude
To study perception regarding gender specific roles activities and professions.

To analyses needs and problems of youth and suggestions to solve them.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION:
What are the main social economic cause behind attitude?
What are the youth perception towards education?
How can we overcome these problems?
CHEPTER 2
LITRATURE REVIEW:
Role of parent in schooling
Parental encouragement and support for learning activities at home combined with parental involvement in schooling is critical to youth’s education. Families and schools to support youth’s learning leads to improved learning outcomes. Parents are the first and continuing educators of their children. Research also shows that teacher quality, including standards and training in parental engagement, is important for facilitating effective parental engagement. The importance of productive partnerships between students, parents, careers, families, schools and the broader community in maximizing student engagement and achievement was recognized by the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA) in the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians, December 2008.Considered broadly, parental engagement consists of partnerships between families, schools and communities, raising parental awareness of the benefits of engaging in their children’s education, and providing them with the skills to do so.

As Muller (2009) states: ‘Family-school and community partnerships are re-defining the boundaries and functions of education. They enlarge parental and community capacity; they create conditions in which children learn more effectively. In these ways they take education beyond the school gates’. Research has shown that parental engagement (of various kinds) has a positive impact on many indicators of youth achievement, including:
Better social skills
Improved behavior
Better adaptation to school
Increased social capital
A greater sense of personal competence and efficacy for learning
Greater engagement in school work
A stronger belief in the importance of education.

Social and Economic issues of youth
Institutions of higher learning need to understand the full impact of the conditions of poverty under which students live, think and learn while studying for a degree or diploma — and how these conditions affect their academic success. 
Entry into tertiary education for students from poor backgrounds is an opportunity to change their economic status at a personal and family level. But this becomes difficult to achieve when their economic conditions impact on their ability to achieve academic success. Without adequate financial resources available in institutions of higher learning, students’ experiences of poverty may be only marginally alleviated, which merely extends and in effect reproduces systemic conditions of poverty. 
This research based on interviews with youth concerning their experiences on achieving academic success. 
Poverty is another major problem of our youth. Due to lack of resources they are unable to get quality education and pursue their field of interest. Poverty is a sort of disease which is weakening our youth. They are unable to fully use their talent and serve their country.

Owing to poverty and unemployment, parents prefer sending their children to labor instead of to school. They make them do so to support their family and use them as earning hands from the early age. Child labor is a sort of deluge that is draining away our precious talent. Child labor can push young ones into bad company and immoral activities such as use of drugs and crime.

Some youth in a grim situation find no other consolation and resort to the use of drugs. Growing use of narcotics is becoming a major problem of our youth. They find it the cheapest source to fight their miseries. But they never realize that this habit of theirs wastes their priceless capabilities and drags them to the brink of death.

Saddest of all our youth – in sheer disappointment – are committing suicide. They waste their life without knowing their worth. Use of drugs, poverty, unemployment and failure in life are the major reasons behind this curse.

Furthermore, pressure from parents and a rigid system is also a bolt from blue to our youth. Social taboos hinder our youth from freely deciding about their future. They cannot follow their dreams. This leads them to escape from their responsibilities towards their parents and their country.

EARLY MARRIAGES
One of the main causes of early marriage is related to personal factors is illiteracy. Illiterate girls are unaware about their own legal rights related to marriage; even they do not know the consequences of early marriages. Moreover their uneducated parents are also unaware about negative impacts of early marriages. Secondly, the other cause of early marriage is poverty.

 Poor parents consider their daughters as a burden, so they marry their daughters at an early age to minimize the number of members in a family. According to the international center for research on women (2010), the occurrence of early marriages in low income families are two times more than in higher income families. Third is an environmental factor which includes Social norms and customs.

 Poor health
Helping adolescents make decisions that will positively affect their health and their prospects for the future is a challenge for communicators and educators. A variety of means must be used to reach young people, a group characterized by great diversity; they have had a wide range of experiences and have different needs and lifestyles. Access to school and higher education, youth programs and training are critical if young individuals are to acquire self-efficacy, the health asset of social capital. Rates of school attendance, even where high, do not in themselves indicate the economic and social relevance of training programs or that curricula have been evaluated appropriately to ensure that they are providing both the knowledge and the skills necessary to sustain health. Criteria that can be used by educationalists and health planners to determine whether or not an educational institution promotes health include well-defined staff roles, access to nutrition, water and sanitation on the premises, health education curriculum content, stress management, gender mainstreaming, nonviolent conflict resolution and accessibility of counselling. Health information and knowledge about diseases and about bodily conditions and functions are evident determinants of health status and outcomes. However, as information (learning to know) is only useful if reinforced by positive attitudes (learning to be) and useful skills (learning to do), the ability to recognize a potential problem must be accompanied by the will and the identification of the means necessary to avoid it. “Life skills are abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enable youth to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. They include the ability to negotiate and exercise good judgments, maintain self-esteem and handle pressure.
Lack of decision making
These global developments have begun to affect young people’s lives. In every region of the world there are now initiatives, projects and programs in which young people are participating in decision-making. Many are beginning to shape the world around them, influencing politicians, policy makers, professionals and the media with their own unique perspectives. Organizations and networks of young people have emerged at the local, national, regional and global levels, demonstrating their capacity for advocacy, communication and negotiation, and their commitment to challenging injustice. EMERGING RECOGNITION OF THE IMPORTANCE OF PARTICIPATION Youth Participation in Decision-making World YOUTH Report, 2003 The demand for recognition of the right of young people to be heard, to have their views given serious consideration, and to play an active role in promoting their own best interests is far from universally respected, however. This demand represents a profound challenge to traditional attitudes towards young people in most societies throughout the world. It implies a radical change in youth-adult relationships in all spheres of life including the family, schools, local communities, programs, social services, and local, regional and national government. A commitment to respecting the participatory rights of young people is incompatible with the age-old propensity of adults to take decisions concerning young people in their absence. Those who have been accustomed to authority are being forced to acknowledge young people as protagonists in the exercise of rights—as active agents in their own lives rather than mere recipients of adult protection. Accepting the necessity of their participation does not mean that adults no longer have a responsibility towards youth. On the contrary, young people cannot independently undertake the advocacy necessary to secure their rights. Structural problems such as poverty, discrimination and injustice cannot be dealt with through participation alone. Adults need to learn to work more closely in collaboration with youth to help them articulate their needs and develop strategies to enhance their well-being.

Unemployment and Poverty
It has been observed in urban and rural areas of Pakistan, especially in Sindh, that people have become involved in gambling by playing different games, such as cards, carrom board, ludo (board game) and other games. They have no jobs and not any activities to do.

When studied how they get involved in the practice, it was learnt that such person involves others and makes the newcomer habitual by making him play different games. There were two notable reasons for which people become this: unemployment and poverty . These two are the main causes behind the downfall of the country. People have no jobs, no money due to unemployment , and hence no means of satisfying their own needs and bearing the responsibility of their family. Sometimes, they want to earn money in a short time, by any means – even gambling .

On the other hand, people have no time to even think for themselves. They are mostly engaged in bad activities or if they are free they keep on thinking about turning others into it.

. Mental stress leads people to many problems, like depression, anxiety, and hypertension.

GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE EDUCATION SYSTEM OF PAKISTAN
Government and Private education system in Pakistan are the two sides of picture, which neither be separated nor be merged. Education is the key to success and you can assume its worth from this statement that those who have knowledge and those who haven’t knowledge cannot be equal. Right education can always leads to success while wrong education becomes reason for failure. It is the basic step in one’s future and without this step it became harder for anyone to achieve success. Choosing right institute become difficult now a days. There’s a huge difference between Private and Government educational system. In Government educational institute, teacher follows the old methods and teaches the old syllabus but in Private institute they always focus on the future needs and always arrange their syllabus according to them. On the other hand, Government institutes are cheap and every student either from allied class or from middle class can afford. But when we talk about Private institute, no doubt they are providing best education but on the other hand they have monopoly in fee structure. Their fee is not affordable for student from middle class family.

Perks of joining Government institute are that a student will become able to get scholarships like free laptops from Government but these facilities are not in Private institutes. On the other hand, Private institutes offer number of activities other than studies such as trips, concerts, parties and many more. Private educational system always tries to groom the personalities of their students, while the Government education system has no such plans and then always focus on the old way of studies.

Private students have opportunity that they tend to study hard by their education but the students of Public institutes have to study by themselves which makes them more responsible. Both Government and Private education system in Pakistan are different and both have their own good and weak points too. It depends on student to choose which educational system suits him/her best. Any students learns anything by himself and institute and teachers only guides them. The difference is between guidance and way of teaching and rest of the things are same in these systems. Don’t be confuse and choose which is most affordable for you and what are your requirements.

Unemployment rates for females are consistently higher than those for males
Needs and problems of youth in Pakistan
The main problem is the communication gap between them and their elders — the former believing themselves to be old enough for taking their own decisions for matters personal or social while the latter just refuse to hand over this responsibility to them. This leads to temperaments rising high more often.

The most common problem a person faces at this phase of life is peer pressure. They are pressures by either dares or threats into doing what one would rather avoid. Some people are naturally competitive and they strive to act in ways that could help settle their ‘image’ either to impress or intimidate others. This can be seen in their disobedience of their elders who try to advice them through experiences which these young ones lack at the moment but fail dismally.

 In our society, unfortunately, there are many young people who cannot even afford to go to school. They remain illiterate and are shamefully and mercilessly forced into child labour when they ought to be learning and enjoying life like the rest of their age group. A number of them face problems and some even lost their life or limb, doing jobs which are meant for older people.

Racism and/or discrimination against people of opposite gender, caste, creed or religion makes youth a victim of emotional disorder. They have low self-esteem and can easily be overridden by views of other people. This is in special reference to the general concept of male domination over women who are taken for granted in respect to their specialization at house chores. Because today’s children are less concerned with politics, they are vulnerable to be used in anti-social activities with false charms that lure them into active participation.

Last but not the least, are the so-called love issues which have dramatically been on rise since the past few years but end mostly in the destruction of lives either by suicide or by eternal misery which renders them mentally unfit. The depression overpowers them and very few are able to cope up with it as another aspect of the ups and downs of life.

Recommendations to solve youth’s problems:
Develop and implement a youth mainstreaming policy
To Create an enabling environment that helps youth access the market  
Create technical schools to improve skills 
Work on youth talents through establishing sports and talent academies  
Develop a legislation through an act of parliament on how any youth fund shall be administered
Reform Youth Funds and Opportunities
Improve security by deploying more security agents  
Involve youth in decision making at all levels

Chapter 3
Research methodology
UNIVERSE AND SAMPLING
Universe is the area of the study where investigation is to be conducted. Geographical universe of the present study was pare urban area surrounded by the band road, Lahore. Random sample of 200 respondents was takien by systematic random sampling. Each respondent was interviewed. Equal number of male and female respondents were included in this sample.
CONCEPTULIZATION AND OPERATIONALIZATION
Conceptualization is the process by which researcher define what they are trying to study as accurately. Researcher need to be very careful what they are trying to find out.
OPERATIONALIZATION.
Operationalization refers to the process of thinking out how to measure the concepts that are being used in research. When operationalize something it is necessary to know how researchers are going to measure it.
EDUCATION:
CONCEPTIONAL DEFINITION.

Education is the reflective theoretical study of how we spread knowledge in human society and how we think about realizing that dynamic task. (Philip-2011)
OPERATIONAL DEFINATION:
Education is not about learning it is a multisided process that ultimately affects our people ,our economy and our planet. Education plays an important role to transported knowledge in every aspect of an individual .

AGE:
CONCEPTIONAL DEFINATION:
The concept of age has become more complicated because life acceptancy has increased and people at each age had progressively more remaing years of life. As people modified their behaviors to reflect these changes 40years olds began to act more like 30years old had acted in the past (Sandersone-2008)
OPERATIONAL DEFINATION
Age is the different factor that effect public contribution in different phases that is young children with physically strong and have daring .they work and earn .Therefore they contribute to public with their physically strength and wealth.

Dropout
CONCEPTIONAL DEFINATION:
Dropout one who has quitted form a certain social group or an environment (Houghton-2011)
OPERATIONAL DEFINATION
Each year inform that a group of thirteen to sixteen dropout when there is lake of facilities in services adding to the number of illiterates with nowhere to go.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:
Methodology is the science of indicating ways of doing something properly. Methodology deals with the theory of study. The description, explanation and justification of methods. It is also a science of study how research is done objectively and scientifically. A study of youth was conducted in Lahore. The respondent were comprised of male and female from pare urban area band road, Lahore.

UNIVERSE:
Researcher has to draw a sample of respondent. From a large number of groups which is called a population. The universe of the present study was comprised of the Pare urban area of the band road, Lahore. The reason for selecting the area was the convenient of respondent and it was easy to approach. There are many workshops, restaurant and CNG Stations there. Youth are working there as labour and easily available.

SAMPLE
Sample is the essential part of research because it saves time and energy. We select a small sample from a population because it is difficult to study whole population. According to our research we selected a sample of 200 respondents. Both drop out and not attended the schools. Youth who are working as labor were included in sample. Data was collecting male and female interview from respondents helped in understanding their perception about school and gender in equality. Total 200 respondents were interviewed systematic random sampling technique is used for selecting sample from target population.
SAMILING TECHNIQUES FOR YOUTH SAMPLE
we selected 100 male and 100 female the reason for selecting youth is to observe the dropout rate after primary level. We selected systematic random sampling techniques.

DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLING
This section explain the characters of sample. The respondent were between the ages of 12 to 18 and 200 respondents were taken from pare urban area band road, Lahore.

METHODOLOGY OF DATA COLLECTION
We used a qualitative approach. On the nature of our study we need in depth study for youth according to the age of respondents. It was difficult for researcher to do interview for a large sample. We select a 200 respondents from the area of band road, Lahore for this we use interview schedule which are our qualitative method for the collection of data.

CONSTRUCTION OF INTERVIEW SCHEDULE:
Language which we selected for the construction of interview schedule was English according to the age of students. We asked them very simple questions. Interview schedules includes the basic information about the respondents. .
DATA COLLECTION AND FIELD EXPERIENCE
After finalizing the tool, researcher collected data from the respondents. The interview schedule that pretested and some questions were changed to make it more understandable. It was also a difficult approach. It is very difficult contact to all respondents at a time. People easily agree to share their general perception but unwilling to share their personal and private reasons. Majority are not aware of their basic human rights. Researcher learned a lot of things from field experienced and gained inside into youth’s attitude.
Chapter 4
Data analysis and finding and discussion
TABLE # 01
Table # 1 is about the family occupation of the respondents. It shows majority 46% of the respondent’s fathers were doing personal business. On the other side, 35% were working on daily wages. 13% fathers were attached with Govt Jobs .Only 5% are unemployed.

The respondent’s mothers 61% were busy in household activities .In addition 29% were doing Govt jobs .Further 5% were doing personal business and working on daily wages.
TABLE # 02
The table # 2 depicted the picture of monthly income of respondent’s family. Majority 42% of the respondent’s family earned 20,000 per month for household expenditure. 25% of the respondent family earned 30,000 and 25% were also earning 10000Rs on monthly bases. Very few respondent’s family 8% have high income.

TABLE # 03
Table #3 is regarding the parent’s education .the majority of the parents were illiterate 35% 27% were only primary pass.in addition ,only 19% had secondary education and 19% of the respondent’s parents were having higher education .

TABLE # 04
So far as the opinion of respondent’s family about education was concern, majority of the responden’s parents 89% thought education isn’t necessary. On the other side, only 18% of the respondent’s parents showed their interest in education.

TABLE # 05
RESPONDENTS ATTENDED SCHOOL
Table no. 5 indicate that the education status of the respondents which revealed that 41% male respondents had not attended school and rest of 59% attended school .on the other hand , majority 65% female respondents had not attended school and only 35% female respondents had attended school.

TABLE # 06
Further when the respondents were asked their education level, multiple reasons were given. Majority was said in female 35% were passed only primary class. On the other side 65% majority of the female respondents’ explained that they are uneducated. The table showed that the 36% male respondents were primary pass. Furthermore 23 % were also in male respondents were secondary pass .But 41% male respondents were illiterate.

TABLE # 07
In addition, when the respondents were asked about the reasons for discontinuing schooling multiple responses were given. Majority of the respondents was said 53% family cannot afford their education. The other significant reasons included 47% the respondents were not interested to continuing their education. Only 1% respondents said that they had no proper school in area.

TABLE # 08
As regards, the work status of the male respondents, majority 68% were working. On the other side, only 32% are jobless. When we see the majority of female respondents 53% were working and 47% are not doing jobs. Majority male respondents 65% then female respondents 53% are doing more jobs.

TABLE # 09
Table no.9 depicted the picture of respondent’s reasons of doing job. Majority of the male respondents 46% were doing work to contribute family pocket.22% of the male respondents were doing job just for personal expenses but 32%of the male respondents had no job.

But the table indicated that the majority of the working female respondents 32% were contributing in family pocket. And the 21% were using their income for their personal expenses.

Table # 10
The table 10 give information about the respondent’s perception about job, in which they are presently engaged in. Mostly male respondents complained they had no jobs 30%.In regard of the working status of the female respondents 13% were complaining for having no jobs. Only 8% said that they did not need a job. On the other side, 53% female respondents were doing jobs 68% male were busy in jobs.

TABLE # 11
Furthermore table # 11 shows the respondent’s perception about family attitude towards him/her. Mostly 76% female respondents answered that they were treated as a child in their family, 24% only said that their family behaved them like a growing person. But the male respondents 56% were answered that they were treated as a child and 44% were treated as a growing person.

TABLE # 12
Table shows the respondents activities in response of questions regarding respondent’s activities. In general, collected information indicates in male respondents majority 39% of the respondents spent most of their time outdoor activities. Whereas, 22% of the respondents remain busy in gossips with friends, 21% used their time on TV and video games. Only 18% spend their time household activity. The answered from female respondents are totally different. Majority 58% of the female respondents remained busy in household activities.25% remained busy in gossips with friends .It was also said that 22% were remained busy in T.V and video games. Only 17% female respondents answered that they visited the outside activities
TABLE # 13
Table no. 13 is about the right of marriage decision. While discussing male respondents opinion about marriages. It was seen that out of total respondents 35% have no right for marriage decision. Only 65% said, they have right. But in female respondents majority 63% had no right of marriage decision .only 37% had this right.

TABLE # 14
Table no. 14 shows the needs of the respondents, majority 57% of the respondents feels insecurity from their social status 33% said they had the feeling of loneliness.As far as 10% of the total respondents said that they had no enough things to do .

TABLE # 15
Health status of the respondents were also inquired by the respondents out of total 200 respondents. 63% respondents reported the problem of insufficient medical care and 37% respondents were facing unhygienic home atmosphere.

TABLE # 16
The table#16 presented the picture of the employment status of the respondents. Majority of the respondents 45% were facing underemployment issues. On the other side 35% were unemployed .the only 20% explained that they were facing the problem in mobility.

TABLE # 17
In this table, the Respondents were asked about their satisfactional level. Overall Majority 71% of the respondents were satisfied with their parents, 19% said they are satisfied with their life as whole. Only 10% answered that they were satisfied with their standard of life.

Chapter 5
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMANDAION
RESPONDENT’S FAMILY PROFILE
As far as respondents family occupation was concerned, majority 46% of the respondent’s fathers were doing personal business. On the other side, 35% were working on daily wages. 13% fathers were attached with Govt Jobs .Only 5% had no jobs.

Majority of the respondent’s mothers 61% were busy in household activities .In addition 29% were doing Govt jobs .Only 5% were doing personal business and working on daily wages. Majority of the fathers of the respondents were doing business and mothers of the respondents were busy in house hold activities.

Majority of the respondent’s family earned 20,000 per month for household expenditure. In second, respondent’ family earned 30,000 and 25% were also earning 10000Rs on monthly bases. Very few respondent’s family have high income. This income was high from thirty thousand rupees. Mostly the income of the respondents were answered twenty thousand rupees. When we analyses the economic status of the respondent’s parents the result shows that majority of the family have low source of income .

Respondent’s education status
The majority of the parents were illiterate. They were not educated. But primary pass parents were in very few numbers. Some respondents were also answered that their parents are secondary and high educated.
When we see the Family was concern about education, majority of the respondent’s parents were illiterate and thought education isn’t necessary. On the other side, only very few of the respondent’s parents showed their interest in education. This is alarming situation that majority of female is not attending school.
RESPONDENTS EDUCATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL PROFILE
When we talk about the education status of the respondents which revealed that majority male respondents had not attended school it showed that male in majority left the school .on the other hand , majority 65% female respondents had not attended school .the interest of education and the chances of education were found more in male respondents.

This is also the picture of education level in male is higher than female respondents .Further when the respondents were asked their education level, multiple reasons were given. Majority was said in female, they were passed only primary class. Majority of the female respondents’ explained that they are uneducated. Male gave more answer that they had studied primary and secondary class.

When we talk about the reasons for discontinuing schooling multiple responses were given. Majority of the respondents was said family cannot afford their education.it showed the economic issues in their family. The other significant reasons was their interest to continuing their education. Only 1% respondents said that they had no proper school in area.

RESPONDENTS ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
As regards, the work status of the male respondents, majority were working and doing jobs. On the other side, only 32% are jobless. When we see the majority of female respondents 53% were working and 47% are not doing jobs. Male were reported more in doing jobs then female. Because they have more chances of job and other social responsibilities.

Two reasons were explained in the answer of earning of the male and female respondents. Majority of the male respondents were doing work to contribute family pocket and for personal expenses .But majority of the working female respondents were contributing in family pocket. Just 21% were using their income for their personal expenses.

Mostly male respondents complained they had no jobs .In regard of the working status of the female respondents very less were complaining for having no jobs. It was also said that they did not need a job. On the other side, female respondents were also doing jobs But male were more in numbers busy in jobs.

RESPONDENTS PERCEPTION AND FAMILY ATTITUDE
When we concluded the respondent’s perception about family attitude towards him/her. Mostly females were treated as a child in their family. But the male were treated as a growing person in majority in their families.

When we talked about the free time of the respondent. In general, collected information indicates in male time were mostly spent in outdoor activities. Whereas, short number of the respondents remained busy in gossips with friends and TV and video games .Their answered also showed that male did not spend their time in homes usually. On the other side, females were totally different. Majority of the female remained busy in household activities .females were also do Gossips with friends and watching T.V and video games .but they do not have more chances than male. Only 17% female respondents answered that they visited the outside activities
RESPONDENTS ROLE IN DECISION MAKING
While discussing the decision power in male and female at the age of youth. Male in majority had their opinion about marriages. But in female respondents majority had no right of marriage decision .this thing showed the male have more decision power .

SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF THE RESPONDENTS
When we see the social problems other youth, majority of the respondents feels insecurity from their social status in second it was said they had the feeling of loneliness. As far as of the very few respondents said that they had no enough things to do .

HEALTH ISSUES OF THE RESPONDENTS
When the health issues were inquired by the respondents out of total 200 respondents insufficient medical care was the first response in majority were received and unhygienic home atmosphere were also reported.In short Most prominent problem faced by the respondent they have in adequate medical care and unhygienic atmosphere. They have problems with their atmosphere.

EMPLOYMENT
We can judged from this answered that underemployment ,unemployment and mobility were also social issues in youth. Majority of the respondents were facing underemployment issues. On the other side unemployed was also a problem .Lack of sources of mobility was also a social problem to some extent .

RESPONDENT’S SATISFACTIONAL LEVEL
The last question were asked about their satisfactional level. Majority of the respondents were satisfied with their parents, they were also satisfied with their life as whole. Only 10% answered that they were satisfied with their standard of life. These answered showed that majority are happy with their parents but not satisfied with their life as a whole and standard of living
SUGGESSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS
Educational situation of out of school youth in peri urban areas under study calls for immediate action by the government. Majority of the youth do not continue education due to social economic issue, there is a need a to start programme which ensure education for all and initiative for free education. Role of state and family is vital in this regard there is need to sensitize people regarding importance of education for both girls and boys. Adult education programe can help in this regard.

Poverty Reduction steps are also required in this regard female who are out of school there is a need to utilize their energy and potential in this regard .Microcredits can be provided for their small business.
Average of starting age work must be 18 years according to child rights convention. Most of them were not working by choice .There should be such laws and penalty to family for sending and employing children under age.
Family received mostly earning of respondent, it is again violation of right of an individual. There should be law and proper implementation that earning of any individual must be received by him or herself.
There is general need of healthy recreational activities for this age group because there are no such facilities available for particularly this segment of population and absence of these opportunities may encourage them to involve in negative activities.
Friendly atmosphere of family is necessary to solve needs and problems of this age. Whether these are related to education employment for social issues. Guidance and counseling w can built great confidence and sense of responsibility in youth this is necessary to cope with challenges of life.

APPENDICES
TABLE # 01
PARENTS OCCUPATION
Father Mother OPTION FREQUENCY percentage FREQUENCY percentage
Govt,/ Private job 13 29
Personal Business 46 5
Daily wages 35 5
unemployed 5 Household activities 1 61
Total 100 100

TABLE # 02
MONTHLY INCOME OF RESPONDENT’S Family
OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
10000/- 25
20000/- 42
30000/- 25
Any other 8
Total 100
TABLE # 03
RESPONDEDNTS PARENT’S EDUCATION
OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Illiterate 35
Primary 27
Secondary 19
Higher 19
Total 100 TABLE # 04
PARENT’S OPINION ABOUT EDUCATION
OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Necessary 18
Not Necessary 89
Total 100
TABLE # 05
RESPONDENTS ATTENDED SCHOOL
M F M F
OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Yes 59 35
No 41 65
Total 100 100
TABLE # 06
EDUCATION LEVEL OF RESPONDANT
M F M F
OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Primary 36 35
Secondary 23 illiterate 41 65
Total 100 100
TABLE # 07
REASON OF DISCOUNTINING EDUCATION
OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Not interested 47 School was not available 1 Family cannot afforded 53 Total 100 TABLE # 08
WORKING STATUS OF RESPONDANT
M F M F
OPTION frequency percentage
Yes ( working) 68 53 No (jobless) 32 47 Total 100 100 TABLE # 09
REASON OF JOB
M F M F
OPTION frequency percentage
To Contribute Family Pocket 46 32
For Personal Expense 22 21
Not apply 32 47
Total 100 100 100 100
TABLE # 10
REASON OF NOT WORKING
M F M F
OPTION Frequency percentage
not needed 2 08
Have no job 30 13
Not apply 68 53
Total 100 100
TABLE # 11
FAMILY ATTITUDE TOWARD HIM/HER
OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAG
M F
As Child 56 76
As A Growing Person 44 24
Total 100 100
TABLE # 12
RESPONDENTS ACTIVITIES
OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE House hold activities 18 58
Out door activities 39 17
Gossip with the friends 22 25
T.V and video games 21 20
Total 100 100
TABLE # 13
RESPONDENTS ROLE IN DECISION MAKING
OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
M F
Yes 65 37
No 35 63
Total 100 100
TABLE # 14
NEEDS & PROBLEMS OF RESPONDENT
SOCIAL PROBLEMS
OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Loneliness 33
Not Enough To Do Keep Busy 10
Feeling Of Insecurity 57
Total 100
TABLE # 15
HEALTH ISSUES OF RESPONDENTS
OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
In sufficient Medical Care 63
Unhygienic Home Atmosphere 37
Total 100
TABLE # 16
EMPLOYMENT
OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Underemployment 45
Problem in mobility 20
Unemployment 35
Total 100
TABLE # 17
RESPONDENT SATISFACTIONAL LEVEL
OPTION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
With parents they are satisfied 71
with life as whole satisfaction 19
Standard of living 10
Total 100
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK UNIVERSITY OF THE PUNJAB LAHORE
A STUDY OF ATTITUDE OF YOUTH TOWARDS EDUCATION PERI URBAN AREA BAND ROAD, LAHORE
Respondent’s nameAge Sex
Family profile
What is your Parent’s occupation?
Father
Mother
Govt,/ Private job Personal Business Daily wages unemployed Household activities What is your Monthly family income ?
10000/-
20000/-
30000/-
Any other
Education level of the parents?
Primary
Secondary
Higher
What is your parent, s opinion about education?
Necessary
Not necessary
Socio-Economic Reasons
Have you ever attended school?
Yes No
If yes then up to which class you attended?
Primary
Secondary
illiterate
What are the reasons for discontinuing education?
Not interested
School was not available
Family cannot afford it.

Are you presently working?
YesNo
What are the reasons of your job?
To contribute family pocket
For personal expense only
Not apply
If never employed
Not needed
Have no job
Not apply
Gender Specific Role and Activities
In your opinion how you are treated by your family?
As child
as a growing person
Any other
How do you spend most of the time?
House hold activities
Out door visits
Gossip with the friends
T.V and video games
Do you have right for marriage decision?
Yes No
Needs and Problems
14) How do you state your social problems?
1-Loneliness
2-Not enough to do keep busy
3-Feelings of insecurity
15) What are the problems facing in healthy life?
Insufficient medical care
Unhygienic home atmosphere
16) What are the Employment issues?
Underemployment
unemployment
Problem in mobility
17) How for you satisfied with
Your parents
Your life as a whole
Your standard of living
References