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FACTORS AFFECTING IMPLEMENTATION OF COURIER SERVICES INFORMATION SYSTEM IN KENYA

FACTORS AFFECTING IMPLEMENTATION OF COURIER SERVICES INFORMATION SYSTEM IN KENYA: A CASE STUDY OF G4S NAIROBI

BY
COSMAS BELINDA MORAA

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A RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT (BUSINESS MANAGEMENT OPTION) OF KENYA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT

FEBRUARY 2018
DECLARATION
Declaration by the Student
I declare that this research proposal is my original work that has never been presented to any institution of higher learning. No part of this research should be reproduced without the author’s consent or that of the Kenya institute of Management.
Name…………………………………Signature………………………….Date……………………
KIM/DBM/37309/17

Declaration by the Supervisor
This research proposal has been submitted with my approval as The Kenya Institute of Management supervisor
Name…………………………………Signature………………………….Date……………………
Lecturer Supervising

For and on behalf of The Kenya Institute of Management
Name…………………………………Signature………………………….Date……………………
Branch Manager: Nairobi Branch

DEDICATION
This work is dedicated to my family members who have been supportive in terms of finances, prayers and moral support.

ACKNOWLEGDEMENT
I would like to thank the Almighty God for enabling me to reach this far. I also wish to acknowledge the support rendered towards the development of this proposal by various individuals. My special word of thanks goes to my supervisor Mr. Humphrey Sifuna Simiyu for his support and patience as he took me through the research proposal. I am also indebted sincerely to my lecturers at Kenya institute of Management for the part they played in developing my academic life. I also thank G4S for allowing me to do research in their company. Last but not the least; my gratitude goes to all people who in their special way made this proposal a success.

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study will be to establish factors affecting implementation of courier services information systems in Kenya with reference to G4S Nairobi. The specific objectives will be to establish the effect of company policy, employee training, financial capacity, information technology and organization culture implementation of courier services information systems. The research will be significant to the management of G4S, other security firms and other scholars.
The study will adopt a descriptive research design and used stratified random sampling method since the population is heterogeneous. The target population for this study will be the workforce in the organization who will include top management, middle management, and support staff with a target population of 122 employees. A sample size made up of 60 of the target population will be selected. In addition, both qualitative and quantitative research methods will be employed in data analysis. Data will be presented using pie charts, graphs and tables.

TABLE OF CONTENT
DECLARATION………………………………. ii
DEDICATION iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv
ABSTRACT v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS x
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS xi
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Background of the Study 1
1.3 Statement of the Problem 3
1.4 Objectives of the Study 4
1.5 Research Questions 4
1.6 Significance of the Study 5
1.7 Limitations of the Study 5
1.8 Scope of the Study 6
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Review of Theoretical Literature 7
2.3 Review of Analytical Literature 24
2.4 Summary 25
2.5 Conceptual Framework 27
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 29
3.2 Study Design 29
3.3 Target Population 29
3.4 Sample Design 30
3.5 Data Collection Procedures 30
3.6 Data Analysis Methods 31
REFERENCES
APPENDICES
Appendix I- Questionnaires
Appendix II – Budget
Appendix III – Work Plan

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Target Population 29
Table 3.2 Sample Size 30

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Organization Structure for G4S 3
Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework 27

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
DBM Diploma in Business Management
ICT Information Technology Systems
KIM Kenya Institute of Management

OPERATIONAL DEFINTION OF TERMS
Company Policy This is a collective behaviour of humans that are part of an organization, it is also formed by the organization values, visions, norms, working language, systems, and symbols, and it includes beliefs and habits.
Employee Training Defined as the process of adding knowledge and skills to individuals to ensure the individual performs better
Financial Capacity It’s the ability to provide adequate financial resources, usually in the form of money, or other values such as effort or time, to finance a need, program, and project, usually by an organization or government.
Information Technology Its defined as the collection of tools, including machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures used by humans.
Organization Culture It is a pattern of responses discovered, developed, or invented during the group’s history of handling problems which arise from interactions among its members, and between them and their environment

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
1.1 Introduction
This chapter explains the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the research objectives, research questions, significance of the study, limitations of the study, and the scope of the study.
1.2 The Background of the Study
We are living in a world where movement of goods, services and people crossing national borders has increased at an alarming rate through courier services. According to Hill (2003) courier is a person or company employed to deliver messages, packages and mails. We are living in a world where the national borders are gradually being erased and the world is being turned into one huge village. These are times in which a person will be driving to work in a car designed in Japan by Toyota and assembled in Kenya by General Motors Kenya Limited, from components made of Korean steel and Malaysian rubber. He may fuel the car at a petrol station owned by a multinational company such as Shell. This fuel could have been made out from oil pumped out of a well off the coast of West Africa by a French owned company and transported to the Kenyan coast by a ship owned by a Chinese Shipping line. While driving to work, the person will talk to his broker on a Nokia cell phone designed in Finland and assembled in Texas using chipsets designed in Taiwan, all the above facilitated by courier services.
This movement of goods, services and other resources has been facilitated by the phenomena called courier According to Hill (2003), courier refers to a shift towards a more integrated and interdependent world economy. courier reflects a business orientation based on the belief that the world is becoming more homogenous and that distinctions between national markets are not only fading out, but in some cases, will eventually disappear. From these definitions it is evident that courier represents integration of different businesses. This is because no business can exist independently and each has to depend on others for resources. With international trade barriers breaking down, firms across industry sectors are recognizing the opportunities arising from courier sourcing, off-shoring, and growing domestic demand in emerging markets. For courier service providers, this internationalization of the supply chain has created both challenges and opportunities. Pavlik (2003) argued that Courier intermediaries focused on international movements including freight forwarders, customhouse brokers, non-vessel operating carriers as well as export management companies, characterize themselves as “Third Party courier providers” capable of offering complete “solutions” for the movement of international freight. The current trend of changes in global business is highlighting the importance of the growth in 14 courier services in the development of Third World business and industries. Literature reveals that many of these Third World nations are faced with the challenges facing international courier services, the task of the increase in the growth of courier services is quite challenging. Attempts to understand these challenges is by looking at factors like private customers, powerful and rapid change, global competition and information communication technology and transportation that affect the growth of courier services.
1.1 Profile of G4S
G4S was incorporated in December 1997 and commenced operations in January 1998. The offices are situated along Argwing Kodhek Road. Our relationships with clients are important hence we offer the best laid out solutions including advice and consultations.
G4S aims at providing accepted guarding services to its clients within Nairobi in Kenya. It is one of the security firms within Nairobi which play an important role in the country by providing job opportunities. As one of the security firms in Kenya, it deals with guarding of residential and companies, installation of alarms, Investigation.
The company offers gurading services whereby the guards undergo a six weeks intensive training course in the capable hands of qualified trainers, under the direct supervision of the Managing Director.
Intruder alarms are not only the number one solution of preventing attacks on your property but also means of protecting your possessions and the occupants too. Radar has invested heavily in making the Canine Unit efficient and fully functional. We have patrol dogs that always come with a handler. We also have Bomb and Narcotics Detector Dogs (Sniffers) that are trained in Denmark.
Radar Guards are well equipped with necessary gadgets to conduct security searches at building and compound entrances.e.g. walk through metal detectors, hand held metal detectors, under vehicle search mirror.
Figure 1.1 Organization Structure of G4S

Source: (G4S, 2018)
1.3 Statement of the Problem
For any firm operating on the global platform, the internal and external business environments are bound to pose challenges that may cause the firm not to meet its goals and objectives. At the heart of courier, as evidenced by their strategic plan, their aims is to be a world leaders in the courier services industry and has listed some key objectives to be met in order to achieve their vision. There are various barriers to successful business in the international arena including: managerial barriers for example, limited ambition, unrecognized opportunities, lack of skills, fear, inertia; governmental barriers for example, trade, capital and exchange controls etc; non-tariff barriers; socio- cultural barriers for example, language, religion, lifestyle etc and ICT that cause pose challenges to multinational companies (Korth, 2005).
In the case of courier companies in Kenya like G4S, BM and data rush, there are three main challenges encountered namely Information communication Technology, staff training and motivation and service delivery It is against this background that the purpose of this study will be to investigate the direct and indirect effects of ICT on financial performance courier companies in Kenya.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
1.4.1 General Objective
The general objective of the study will be to examine the factors affecting implementation of courier services information systems in Kenya.
1.4.2 Specific Objectives
i. To examine the effect of company policy on implementation of courier service management information systems in G4S Nairobi.
ii. To establish the effects of employee training on implementation of courier service information system in G4S Nairobi Kenya.
iii. To determine the effect of financial capacity on implementation of courier service management information systems in G4S Nairobi.
iv. To establish the effects of information technology on implementation of courier service management information systems in G4S.
v. To examine the effects of organisational culture on implementation of courier service management information systems in G4S Nairobi.
1.5 Research Questions
i. What is the effect of company policy on implementation of courier service information systems in Kenya?
ii. Does employee training affect implementation of courier service management information systems in Nairobi?
iii. To what extent does financial capacity affect the implementation of courier service management information systems in G4S?
iv. How does information system affect the implementation of courier service management information systems in G4S?
v. What are the effects of organisational culture on implementation of courier service management information systems in G4S Nairobi?

1.6 Significance of the Study
1.6.1 G4S Company Management
The study will enable the stakeholders at G4S Company who rely on delivery services to appreciate the contribution of innovative use of information systems towards the productivity of their enterprise and therefore be able to improve in the utilization of delivery services hence development of delivery sector.
1.6.2 Other Courier Service Companies
The study findings can be used by other courier service will benefit from this research by using it to improve operations in their companies since they will be able to learn from the management of G4S
1.6.3 Other Researchers
Academicians and scholars will also find this research valuable in their pursuit for advanced knowledge in innovative use of information systems on development of courier service delivery. It will also contribute to the empirical literature in the same area of study.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
1.7.1 Confidentiality
The company’s management may decline to release some information about the organization term it confidential. The researcher will use the KIM letter of introduction to show that the information gathered will be treated with much caution and confidentiality and was only used for academic purposes only.
1.7.2 Lack of Cooperation
The employees of G4S Company will be very important in the study however, they may be uncooperative and unwilling to give information regarding the topic under study. To overcome this problem, the researcher will produce a letter from KIM to prove the intention of the study.
1.7.3 Fear of Victimization
Some of the respondents may retreat from responding to the research questions since they may fear that information they provide can put them at risk of losing their jobs for exposing them on goings in the provide and sought authority from the management to undertake in the organization. The identity of the respondents who will participate will also be kept anonymous.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study will focus on the factors affecting implementation of courier service management information systems in Nairobi with reference to G4s Nairobi located along Argwing Kodhek road, Nairobi city. The target population for the study will be 120 respondents who will be drawn from the top management, middle level management and support staff. The study will be conducted between February 2018 and April 2018.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Introduction
This chapter presents a review of related literature. It will enable the researcher gain knowledge from previous research and come up with other useful information to strengthen the study.
2.2 Review of Theoretical Literature
2.2.1 Company Policy
Policies and procedures are designed to influence and determine all major decisions and actions, and all activities take place within the boundaries set by them. Procedures are the specific methods employed to express policies in action in day-to-day operations of the organization. Together, policies and procedures ensure that a point of view held by the governing body of an organization is translated into steps that result in an outcome compatible with that view. Organization policy study may also refer to the process of making important organizational decisions created by national governments, including the identification of different alternatives such as programs or spending priorities, and choosing among them on the basis of the impact they will have. Policies can be understood as political, management, financial, and administrative mechanisms arranged to reach explicit goals (Armstrong, 2007)
Definitions of policy and research done into the area of policy are frequently performed from the perspective of policies created by national governments, or public policy. Several definitions and key characteristics of policy have been identified within the framework of organization policy. While many of these are broadly applicable to other organizations such as private companies or non-profit organizations, the government-focused origin of this work should be kept in mind. According to William (2008), a policy is ‘a set of interrelated decisions taken by a political actor or group of actors concerning the selection of goals and the means of achieving them within a specified situation where those decisions should, in principle, be within the power of those actors to achieve’. Being the author of numerous papers on the subject he is considered to be a leading authority in field.
An organization policy refers to a business’ approach to a given issue. That approach is generally detailed and may include components such as forbidden behaviors, rights, and dispute procedures. One company may have several policies and they may pertain to issues involving clients or employees. When a company policy involves employees, it is likely to be overseen by either management or human resources. When clients are involved, policies are often handled by customer service agents or managers. The term policy may mislead people to think that a single idea or rule is being communicated. On the contrary, a company policy is usually a collection of ideas that pertain to a single issue. It normally communicates what a person should expect of a company, what a company expects from individuals, and what will happen in events that deviate from the norm (Armstrong, 2007)
It is often necessary for a company policy to be established to ensure that a business complies with an obligatory regulation. For example, in many jurisdictions the law forbids discrimination on a basis such as religion or pregnancy. A company, in addition to the guilty individual, may be held liable for any violations of this law. To help prevent the occurrence and to reduce what may be interpreted as complicity, companies usually develop policies. Such a policy is likely to consist of several major components. First, it may define the issue, in this case discrimination. It may then outline forbidden acts. The procedures for those who believe that they are victims to have their complaints addressed will usually be included. There is also likely to be a disciplinary action plan for violators outlined in the policy (Armstrong, 2007)
A company policy that pertains to clients usually addresses how they will be treated and the obligations that they consent to. For example, a store may have a return policy to address situations where a customer does not want an item that she has purchased. That policy may specify items that cannot be returned. It may outline the requirements of the customer, such as having the receipt and the original packaging. Additionally, it should specify the company’s obligations, such as providing a refund for a purchase made within 30 days and doing so in the same form of payment originally used. There are numerous benefits of company policies. They encourage fairness because the terms are outlined on a general instead of an individual basis. Policies can make businesses more popular because people are aware of how they will approach an issue in advance. One drawback of a company policy, however, is that it may impose legal implications on the businesses that implement them. When someone deviates from a policy, the company may be held liable because courts may interpret it as a breach of contract (Smith, 2007)
According to Smith (2007) a policy is typically described as a principle or rule to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. The term is not normally used to denote what is actually done; this is normally referred to as either procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by the Board of or senior governance body within an organization whereas procedures or protocols would be developed and adopted by senior executive officers. Policies can assist in both subjective and objective decision making. Policies to assist in subjective decision making would usually assist senior management with decisions that must consider the relative merits of a number of factors before making decisions and as a result are often hard to objectively test for example work-life balance policy.
In contrast policies to assist in objective decision making are usually operational in nature and can be objectively tested for example password policy. A Policy can be considered as a Statement of intent or a commitment. For that reason at least, the decision-makers can be held accountable for their policy. The term may apply to government, private sector organizations and groups, and individuals. Presidential executive orders, corporate privacy policies, and parliamentary rules of order are all examples of policy. Policy differs from rules or law. While law can compel or prohibit behaviors (for example ealaw requiring the payment of taxes on income), policy merely guides actions toward those that are most likely to achieve a desired outcome.
Smith (2007) highlights that policy or policy study may also refer to the process of making important organizational decisions, including the identification of different alternatives such as programs or spending priorities, and choosing among them on the basis of the impact they will have. Policies can be understood as political, management, financial, and administrative mechanisms arranged to reach explicit goals. In public corporate finance, a critical accounting policy is a policy for a firm/company or an industry which is considered to have a notably high subjective element, and that has a material impact on the financial statements. Policies frequently have side effects or unintended consequences. Because the environments that policies seek to influence or manipulate are typically complex adaptive systems, making a policy change can have counterintuitive results. For example, a government may make a policy decision to raise taxes, in hopes of increasing overall tax revenue. Depending on the size of the tax increase, this may have the overall effect of reducing tax revenue by causing capital flight or by creating a rate so high that citizens are deterred from earning the money that is taxed.
Kotler (2006) The policy formulation process typically includes an attempt to assess as many areas of potential policy impact as possible, to lessen the chances that a given policy will have unexpected or unintended consequences. Because of the nature of some complex adaptive systems such as societies and governments, it may not be possible to assess all possible impacts of a given policy. Policies are typically promulgated through official written documents. Policy documents often come with the endorsement or signature of the executive powers within an organization to legitimize the policy and demonstrate that it is considered in force. Such documents often have standard formats that are particular to the organization issuing the policy. While such formats differ in form, policy documents usually contain certain standard components including.
A purpose statement, outlining why the organization is issuing the policy, and what its desired effect or outcome of the policy should be. An applicability and scope statement, describing who the policy affects and which actions are impacted by the policy. The applicability and scope may expressly exclude certain people, organizations, or actions from the policy requirements. Applicability and scope is used to focus the policy on only the desired targets, and avoid unintended consequences where possible, an effective date which indicates when the policy comes into force. Retroactive policies are rare, but can be found, a responsibilities section, indicating which parties and organizations are responsible for carrying out individual policy statements (Chipper, 2006)
A company policy is an acknowledged set of broad guidelines that lays down the company’s response to specific known and knowable situations and circumstances, determines the formulation and implementation of strategy, and directs and restricts the plans, decisions, and actions of the company’s officers in achievement of its objectives. The policy is devised by the company’s board of directors after a thorough assessment has been done of all the internal and external factors, including all applicable state and federal rules and regulations, that can affect the corporation’s objectives, operations, and future ambitions. A company policy is a unilateral statement by the employer of a decision it does not want to make again and again over time – what days we are open, what times we open and close, who gets how much vacation and sick leave, extra. Once announced, we need not decide anything but exceptions.(Vollman, 2005)
According to Feltus (2008), regulatory policies, or mandates, limit the discretion of individuals and agencies, or otherwise compel certain types of behaviour. These policies are generally thought to be best applied when good behaviour can be easily defined and bad behaviour can be easily regulated and punished through fines or sanctions. An example of a fairly successful public regulatory policy is that of a speed limit.
2.2.2 Employee Training
Training is the process or acquiring knowledge and skills through formal or in formal ways. Skills is an ability to do something well, especially because you have learned and practiced it. Same way knowledge is the information, skills, and understanding that you have gained through learning or experience. In military use, training means gaining the physical ability to perform and survive in combat, and learning the many skills needed in a time of war. These include how to use a variety of weapons, outdoor, survival, skills, and how to survive and capture the enemy among others. Bailey (2002)
According to Armstrong (2007) training is a systematic modification of behaviour through learning that occurs because of education, instruction, development and planned experience. The fundamental aim of training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by adding value to its key resources who are the employees. At the organizational level, a successful Human Resource Development program will prepare the individuals to undertake a higher level of work, ‘organized learning over a given period of time, to provide the possibility of performance change’. In these settings, Human Resource Development is the framework that focuses on the organizations competencies at the first stage training and then developing the employees through education to satisfy the organizations long team needs and the individuals’ career goals and employee value to their present and future employees. Human Resource Development can be defined simply as developing the most important section of any business and its human resource by attaining or upgrading the skills and attitudes of employees at all levels in order to maximize the effectiveness of the enterprise. The people within an organization are its human resources.
Scrivens (2004) observed that training improves proficiency and enable a person to qualify for promotion and it is supposed to be continuous exercise. Therefore the purpose of training is to improve skills, knowledge and change altitude. This is concerned with improving of skills of employees i.e. both new and old. If companies are to survive they must attach the out most importance of training their employee’s sales force. Training can thus increase the confidence and motivation of staff, secondly, it provides recognition, enhance responsibility and possibility of increased pay and promotion it also gives a feeling of personal satisfaction, achievement and broad opportunity for career progression. Finally, training helps to improve the ability and quality of staff thus increasing the level of individual and organization competence.
A well designed training and a developed program can help realize objectives, improve customer’s service and quality of the organization. Training and development should be offered to all employees at all levels. The effectiveness of training and development is enhanced when training activity are preceded by comprehensive analysis. According Armstrong (2007) systematic training is designed to meet defined needs which will be satisfied by improving and developing the knowledge skills and attitudes required by individuals to perform adequately a given task or jobs. He says majority of organizations have positive policy on training and development. In some cases this may be more than one state the company will provide resources to ensure that key skills are maintained within the organization.
The training is not regarded as partly productive worker from the beginning of the training centre attended by the trainers from several employers or at a college. Special courses are classified as special education rather than training programs. These are used in number of ways in textbooks. The advantage is that one can select a place of learning, go over when desire and use machine when it’s convenient. Identify and define training needs by analysing corporate team occupation and individual needs to acquire new skills, work knowledge and to improve existing competence. Define the learning required. It is necessary to specify as clearly as possible what skills and knowledge have to be learned and what attitude need to be developed (Bemis, 2004).
According Armstrong (2007) systematic training is designed to meet defined needs which will be satisfied by improving and developing the knowledge skills and attitudes required by individuals to perform adequately a given task or jobs. He says majority of organizations have positive policy on training and development. In some cases this may be more than one state the company will provide resources to ensure that key skills are maintained within the organization.
According to Jessop (2005) In other cases, the policy may refer comprehensively to the various actions it will take to ensure that not only regular supply of skills but also high degree of personal motivation through development opportunities are provided by the company. Objectives of training policy there should be a well-organized training and development described as a systematic training. On the job is the normal work situation and it uses special simplified tools and equipment. The trainee is not regarded as partly productive work from the time training begins, it has an advantage of strongly motivating trainees to run since it is not located in the artificial situation of a classroom. Off the job training takes place away from normal work and uses special simplified tools and equipment.
According to Smith (2007) training is the planned and systematic modification of behaviour through learning events, program and instruction, which enable an individual to achieve the levels of knowledge, skills and competences needed to carry out their work effectively. He pointed out that training has a complementary role to play in accelerating learning. He also commented that conventional training model has a tendency to emphasize subject specific knowledge rather than trying to build core learning abilities.
To successfully launch an employee training program in your own company, follow these helpful tips: stress training as investment. The reason training is often considered optional at many companies is because it is thought of an expense rather than an investment. While it’s true that training can be costly up front, it’s long-term investment in the growth and development of your human resource. Determine your needs as you probably don’t have unlimited time or funds to execute an employee training program, you should decide earlier on what the focus of your training program should be. (Jessop, 2005)
Brian (2006) Determine what skills are most pertinent to address current or future company needs or one that will provide the biggest payback. Ask yourself, “How will this training eventually prove beneficial to the company?” Repeat this process as your business needs change. Promote a culture of learning. In today’s fast-paced economy, if a business isn’t learning is going to fall behind. A business learns as its people learn. Communicate your expectation that all employees should take the necessary steps to hone their skills and stay on top of their profession or field of work. Make sure you support those efforts by providing the resources needed to accomplish this goal.
Find the right space. Select a training location that is conducive to learning. Choose an environment that’s quiet and roomy enough to spread out materials. Make sure the space is equipped with computer and proposal or, so you present a visually stimulating training session. Clarify connections. Some employees may feel that the training they are receiving isn’t relevant their job. It’s important to help them understand the connection earlier on, so they don’t view the training sessions as a waste of valuable time. Employees should see the training as an important addition to their professional portfolios .Award people with completion certificates at the end of the program. (Feltus, 2008)
According to Cole (2002) training is any activity that is desired towards the acquisition of specific knowledge and skills for the purpose of an occupation or task. Mayors (2007) view training as an enhancement of knowledge which acts not only as a motivator to the employees but also an opportunity for better job that has more responsibility with good achievements. Training is planned process to modify altitude, knowledge or skills, behaviour through learning experience to achieve performance in any activity or range of activities
The purpose of training according to Mullins (2009) is to improve knowledge and skills, and to change altitude: training is viewed as one of the most important motivators that can lead to possible benefits for both the team and the organization as a whole. Mullins says training can increase the confidence, motivation and commitment of staff; it can also provide recognition, enhance responsibility and give a feeling of personal satisfaction and achievement.
2.2.3 Financial Capacity
According to Terry F (2005), finance can defined as the act and the science of managing money. Finance is also the capital needed by a county in its activities, which then generate returns and help maximize a shareholders wealth. Cash is the lifeblood of a venture any county no matter how big or small moves on cash and not profit, only with cash you cannot pay bill with profit only with cash. You cannot pay employees with profits, only with cash.
According to Pandecy (2005) finance is provision of money when it is required. It is the lifeblood of pin enterprise. There are number of factors why small enterprises have particular difficulty in obtaining formal credit or find the cost not worth effort. Small processing and trading organizations are frequently unable to provide the collateral required for credit organizations. He further describes business finances as the task of generating funds needed by a business entity in the most favorable terms to achieve the objectives of the business. The objectives of the are profit maximization, business ethics, efficiency, effectiveness and survival as well as social responsibility. Therefore, finance is a crucial component in efficiency of an organization. A major problem arises when there is poor management of finance by the management.
According to Cole (2002) finance or resources is important in the overall development process as one of major factor of productivity together with land and laboring the same run, is one of the key inputs in the development of business enterprise. Furthermore, in a business system on of the reasons firms form ‘linkages and relationship with one another is for the purpose of access to financial capital. It was likewise the case that in the overall process of development financial market in particular serves the broad purpose of mobilization of surplus resources or saving from savers, leaders and their allocation to investors borrower in the form of credited through transaction taking place in the organized financial system .
According to Mullins (2009) one of major causes of business failure is lack of finance to sustain efficiency. This reduces the ability of the organization to purchase the necessary equipment that facilitates the smooth operation of the products to purchase the necessary equipment to meet day-to-day financial requirements as they fall due. He further states that working capital is the lifeblood of any organization without it the organization cannot function effectively. Sufficiency of finance is used as one of the measure of the viability of the business.
A business that is persistently constrained of finance is considered a candidate of bankruptcy. A good idea does not guarantee success of any business because without sufficient finance not every aspect of business cost can be realized. In the ideal world firms exist to convert inputs of physical and money capital into outputs of goods and services that communities demand to generate more profits since most economic resources are limited about society’s’ demand. The finance function can be perceived as the allocation of scarce resources with a view to maximize customer satisfaction and because money capital as opposed to lab our is typically the limiting factor and the strategic problem for finance management since it’s all about how limited funds are allocated between alternative uses. (Mullins, 2009)
Finance is the lifeblood and nerve center of a business, just as circulation of blood is essential in the human body for maintaining life finance is very essential to smooth running of the business. Whether big, medium or small is rightly termed as universal lubricant that keeps the enterprise dynamic. No business whether big, medium or small can be started without adequate amount of finance. Right from the beginning, I.e. conceiving an idea to business finance is needed to promote or establish the business acquired fixed assets, make investigation such as market survey, develop products keep men and machine to work encourage management to make progress and create values. Even an existing concern may require further finance for making improvement to make progress and create values. Thus the importance of finance cannot be over emphasized and subject of business finance became utmost important both to the academicians and practicing managers (Armstrong, 2007)
According to Koontz (2006) a new venture requires seed capital during the pre-start and short-up phases. Seed capital is the cash needed for implementation of e-procurement. Seed capital requirements range from small amount to large amount of cash. Capital as investment and possession of a business used to generate income in most instance capital was considered to include money, equity in equipment, facilities, or assets that can be transformed to business use.
Financial resources is important in the overall development process as one of major factor of productivity together with land and laboring the same run, is one of the key inputs in the development of business enterprise. Furthermore, in a business system on of the reasons firms form ‘linkages and relationship with one another is for the purpose of access to financial capital. It was likewise the case that in the overall process of development financial market in particular serves the broad purpose of mobilization of surplus resources or saving from savers, leaders and their allocation to investors borrower in the form of credited through transaction taking place in the organized financial system. Concisely the financial system was therefore made up of institution for saving and borrowing whose basic components and the financial rules of engagement in the exchange of goods and investment and financial organizations formal and informal that was setting social, economic and even political objectives. (Mullins, 2009)
To implement e-procurement it requires a heavy investment in machinery that needs financing that was not forthcoming due to lack of collateral to enable business secure bank loan. A lot of capital was required to get the right machinery of qualified personnel and to sustain the daily operations of the business. Indeed business enterprises require the financial statements of the potential business before a financing contract was issued. Financing capacity was required for a business before a financial contract is issued. (Tony, 2004)
2.2.4 Information Technology
The history of technology is the history of using modern means and techniques of passing information and packages to their destination. This is similar in many ways to the history of humanity i.e. technological innovations and uses are affected by the society’s cultural traditions, many sociologists and anthropologists have created social theories dealing with social and cultural innovation.
Dessels (2007) defines IT as more of information systems whereby y it is any organized combination of people, hardware, software, communication networks and data recourses’ that collects transforms and disseminates information in an organization. The limitations of traditional purchasing have led emergence of procurement which involves information technology in some activities involved in the purchase cycle or as a whole i.e. the whole of procurement process involves it. It has been viewed as one of the dramatic forces that shape people’s lives today. Organizations should therefore monitor the trends of technology i.e. the pace of change, the opportunities for innovations varying research among others. Organization should adopt and tend to benefit from technologies because it will bring efficiency on the business.
The key survival in every business lies in anticipating pattern of changes and aligning strategies to respond to changing business environment .with his regard business firms have continued to invest highly to the development of their capacity through information gathering, analysis, interpretation and communication so as to facilitate decision making. Information Technology cuts across all departments in business organization .With every changing business needs. Information Technology projects are inevitable to every business firm. Found out that business enterprises are unable to operate under costs through the use of Information Technology services. (Dessels, 2007)
A courier management information system (MIS) is the collection of system, both computerized and manual, that provides information about on going activities to an organization’s decision makers. Courier management information system is a system that provides people with either data or information related to an organization’s operations. MIS support the activities of employees, owners, customers and other key people in the organization’s environment – either by efficiently processing data to assist with the than section work load or by effectively supplying information to authorized people in a timely manner. (Coles, 2002)
These days information system provides the message and analytic power that firms need to conduct business and manage their operations across function. Some functions of Management Information System include controlling the far-flung global company in a globalized financial communication with distributors, system, coordination global work team, and helping worldwide reporting needs. The new digital firm business situation requires companies to think more tactically about their business process. Some business processes support the major function areas of the firm, others are cross-function. Here I show one table example of business process for each of the functional areas. Business processes also refer to the unique ways in which organization and management coordinate their behaviour. Many business processes are cross-function, transaction the boundaries between sales, marketing, manufacturing and reach and development, these cross practical processes cut across the traditional organizational, grouping employees from different functional specialties to complete a piece of work. (Cole, 2002)
For example, the order execution process at many companies requires cooperation among the sales function the accounting function and the industrialized function. Under image shows how this cross function process might work. Around ten years ago, being able to track and trace goods in real-time was a prospect for the future. But today, with the aid of modern technology, businesses and consumers have unprecedented real-time visibility into the status of their order. This translates into businesses adapting to consumers’ needs, not only by delivering fast but also by delighting customers along the way. In order to be successful in this competitive industry, more companies choose to build an infrastructure which will help streamline operations. By having access to real-time information, companies will find it easier to prevent and fix inefficient processes on-the-go.(Smith, 2007)
Constantly keeping the customer in the loop with notifications throughout the delivery process ensures a professional and satisfactory experience for both parties. Also, notifications which are available in transit and on delivery of their order ensure that the customer is available at the time and place of delivery hence allowing the delivery process to be smooth. By having direct access to data recorded from the orders and drivers, your company will have insight into the delivery operational flow. By keeping track of your data, not only can you monitor your entire fleet smoothly, but also check the driver performance, so you know how to better manage them in the future. This is an important feature as you can gather information on your customers and customize your services based on their requirements. Couriers who transport such items as medical specimens face special challenges. Organizations such as clinical laboratories, blood banks, biomedical services, hospitals, pharmaceutical services, and tissue banks depend upon couriers to transport medical specimens safely and track time critical delivery. Because of today’s mobile technology, clients can track individual packages in real time and validate deliveries, especially critical in life or death scenarios. (Jones, 2008)
For companies offering time critical services, the ability to access information and packages quickly can result in time and labor savings and improve customer satisfaction. For some clients, efficient time critical service is truly a matter of life and death. In addition to changes in devices used by drivers, highly sophisticated warehouse management solutions can have a tremendous impact on the business, allowing for reduced warehouse space due to increased efficiency, less labor, carrier freight savings and improved overall service. Overall, the correct use of today’s courier business technology can help to reduce errors, save time and money and develop more efficient, consistent business practices. These streamlined operations often are more productive and profitable. In addition, having access to accurate real time data and information provides the opportunity to communicate clearly with customers, potentially increasing the level of service, support and customer satisfaction.
Lack of IT affects efficiency and effectiveness of distribution. Computers will help reliability of materials and products throughout the supply chain class distribution .Most organizations employ the use of paperless information and move in real time, in manual inventory, most of all the relevant documents should be available in the entire supply chain. People rely on information systems to communicate with each other using a variety of physical devices (hardware) information processing instructions and procedures (software) communication channels and stored data. The use of modern IT was vital in ensuring effective quality services. (Jones, 2008)
The introduction of computers has saved many organizations in terms of stationary, space for filling, and cost on employees. The use computers ensure quality systems in terms of efficiency and effectiveness-It also ensures data is kept in the main server and where needed. Business process re-engineered is often based on new possibility for breakthrough performance provided by the emergence of new enabling technologies It enables dissemination, analysis and use of information from and to customers and suppliers and within enterprises .In new ways and in time frame that impact process, organization design and strategic competences. Computer networks, open systems, client server architecture, groupware and electronic data interchange have opened up the possibilities for intergraded automation of business processes Network networks, computer analyzer approaches computer assisted programming now facilitates system design around office process, (Stacey, 2007).
2.2.5 Organization Culture
The word organization can be used in various ways, and according to Cole (2002), it denotes a social entity formed by a group of people. Cole further says that organizations are intricate human strategies designed to achieve certain objectives. Culture as used in relation to organizations is the predominant system of beliefs and values held in an organization by its members. Culture is a pattern of basic assumptions- invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration – that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. Furnham and Gunter (2003) describe the characteristics of organizational culture as difficult to define, multidimensional, with many different components at different levels, no particularly dynamic and ever changing and as taking time to establish and therefore time to change.
Organizational culture is essentially the collection of shared values which provide employees with explicit and implicit signposts to what has come to be regarded as preferred behavior in the organization; quality’s are likely to be greatly influenced by national cultural characteristics. Cole (2002). Organizational culture is the deep-set beliefs about the way work should be organized, the way authority should be exercised, people rewarded, people controlled.
Ford (2010) holds that organizational culture plays an important role on the growth and development of an organization, and can substantially impact organizational performance. There has been significant research to explore the relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance and employee productivity. Muchemi (2006) asserts that organizational culture could be used for measuring economic performance of an organization. Armstrong (2007) asserts with certainty that embedded cultures exert considerable influence on organizational behavior and therefore performance. Felstead (2002) the level of innovation of an employee, his performance in a team, his commitment to the job and other factors are determined by the immediate work environment that the employee is surrounded with and his/her engagement level in the organization.
The wok environment is a mixture of many factors, which when come together form the environment of an organization. These factors are: goal setting, workplace incentives, defined processes, performance feedback, role congruity, mentoring, resource availability and supervisor support. All these factors have an effect on the performance of an employee. Therefore in order to gain better results from employees, it becomes very essential that they should be provided with proper wok environment.
According to Armstrong (2007) organizational or corporate culture is the pattern of values, norms, beliefs and assumptions that may not have been articulated but shape the ways in which people in organizations behave and get things done. Eldridge and Crombie (2014) The culture of an organization refers to the unique configuration of norms, values, beliefs and ways of behaving that characterize the manner in which groups and individuals combine to get things done. Culture is a system of informal rules that spells out how people are to behave most of the time. It is a pattern of assumptions – invented, discovered or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with the problems of external adaption and internal integration – that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to these problems.
Furnham and Ganter (2003) Culture is the commonly held beliefs, attitudes and values that exist in an organization, and to put it lightly, they summarized ‘culture is the way we do things around here.’ Organizational culture is important to any organization. Furnham and Gunter (2003) Culture represents the ‘socialglue’ and generates a ‘we-feeling’, thus counteracting processes of differentiations that are an unavoidable part of organizational life. Organizational culture offers a shared system of meaning which is the basis for communication and mutual understanding. Culture is learnt over a period of time. Stacy (2007) suggests that there are two ways in which learning can take place; first the trauma model, in which members of the organization learn to cope with some threat by the erection of defense mechanisms. Second, the positive reinforcement model, where things that seem to work become embedded and entrenched. Where culture has developed over longer periods of time and has become firmly entrenched, it may be difficult to change quickly, if at all, unless a traumatic event occurs.
According to Phegan (2000), Culture is a social control system. Here the central role of culture is promoting and reinforcing right thinking and behaving, and sanctioning wrong thinking and behaving. In such cases the key idea motivation behind culture is behavioral ‘norms’ that must be up held, and the associated social sanctions that are imposed on those who do not ‘toe the line’. Culture is unique to organizations but there can also be diverse cultures within an organization. An organization’s culture will be evident in the way it conducts its business, treats its employees, customers and the wider community. It also overflows to business processes including the latitude allowed to employees in decision making, developing new ideas and personal expression, how communication flows within the organization and the commitment of employees towards collective objectives.
The crucial purpose of culture, according to Dessels (2007), is to orient its members to reality in ways that provide a basis for alignment of purpose and shared action. According to Armstrong (2007), most managers have their own style but may be influenced by the organizational culture which may then produce a prevailing management style that represents the behavioral norm for managers that is generally accepted and adopted. Larger organizations may however experience diverse and sometimes conflicting cultures due to different characteristics of the management teams. For example, the culture of an outward-looking marketing department may vary considerably with that of and internally focused IT department. Organizational culture influences leadership or management styles.
According to Armstrong (2007) it is not possible to say that one culture is better than another, only that a culture is to a greater extent or lesser extend appropriate in the sense of being relevant to the needs and circumstances of the organization and helping rather than hindering its performance. In essence culture should serve to propagate the organizations goals and objectives, therefore if there is an appropriate and effective culture, it is desirable to take steps to support and reinforce it. On the other hand, if the culture is inappropriate, attempts should be made to determine what needs to be changed and develop and implement plans for change. It is however critical to note that, culture by nature of being embedded, is not easy to change.
Additionally, the value set of the organization can be used as headings for reviewing individual and team performance – emphasizing that people are expected to uphold the values, and induction programmes and further training can cover core values and how people are expected to achieve them. Armstrong (2007) Culture is also an important factor to consider when recruiting; a basic cultural fit should be considered. According to Taylor (2005), most functional turnover stemmed from an individual’s poor performance or failure to fit in comfortably with an organizational or departmental culture.
2.3 Review of Critical Literature
Smith (2007) highlights that policy or policy study may also refer to the process of making important organizational decisions, including the identification of different alternatives such as programs or spending priorities, and choosing among them on the basis of the impact they will have. Policies can be understood as political, management, financial, and administrative mechanisms arranged to reach explicit goals. In public corporate finance, a critical accounting policy is a policy for a firm/company or an industry which is considered to have a notably high subjective element, and that has a material impact on the financial statements. Whereas this is true the author has failed to show how company policy affects implementation of courier service management information systems hence the need for this study to be conducted to fill the gaps.
The purpose of training according to Mullins (1999) is to improve knowledge and skills, and to change altitude: training is viewed as one of the most important motivators that can lead to possible benefits for both the team and the organization as a whole. Mullins says training can increase the confidence, motivation and commitment of staff; it can also provide recognition, enhance responsibility and give a feeling of personal satisfaction and achievement. Whereas this is true the author has failed to show how employee training affects implementation of courier service management information systems hence the need for this study to be conducted to fill the gaps.
According to Pandecy (2005) finance is provision of money when it is required. It is the lifeblood of pin enterprise. There are number of factors why small enterprises have particular difficulty in obtaining formal credit or find the cost not worth effort. Small processing and trading organizations are frequently unable to provide the collateral required for credit organizations. Whereas this is true the author failed to prove how finance affects implementation of e-procurement in the public sector hence the need for this study. This study will intend to find out financial capacity affects the implementation of courier service management information systems hence the need for this study.
The history of technology is the history of using modern means and techniques of passing information and packages to their destination. This is similar in many ways to the history of humanity. i.e technological innovations and uses are affected by the by the society’s cultural traditions. Technological professionalism is a primary factor in in the supply chain management which is as a result of invention of modern methods of performing the supply chain such as the use of codes for security purposes, (Morgan, 2002). Whereas this true, the author has failed to show how information technology affects implementation of courier service management information systems hence the need for this study hence the need for this study.
Zalami (2005) notes that culture can either facilitate or inhibit institutional transformation depending on whether or not the existing culture is aligned with the goals of the proposed change. In terms of culture facilitating innovative initiatives in the public sector and providing a supportive environment for developing enterprising leaders. Training failure can be a manifestation of the values, beliefs, and assumptions. Absence of a learning culture is an inhibiting factor to training. It is difficult to develop a learning culture. It is very difficult to motivate employees to share knowledge or engage in learning process if they are not used to this or perhaps even reluctant to do so. Although this true, the author failed to indicate how organization culture affects implementation of courier service management information systems hence the need to conduct this research.
2.4 Summary
Policies to assist in objective decision making are usually operational in nature and can be objectively tested for example password policy. A Policy can be considered as a Statement of intent or a commitment. For that reason at least, the decision-makers can be held accountable for their policy. The term may apply to government, private sector organizations and groups, and individuals. Presidential executive orders, corporate privacy policies, and parliamentary rules of order are all examples of policy.
Training is the planned and systematic modification of behaviour through learning events, program and instruction, which enable an individual to achieve the levels of knowledge, skills and competences needed to carry out their work effectively. Its pointed that training has a complementary role to play in accelerating learning. He also commented that conventional training model has a tendency to emphasize subject specific knowledge rather than trying to build core learning abilities.
Financial resources is important in the overall development process as one of major factor of productivity together with land and laboring the same run, is one of the key inputs in the development of business enterprise. Furthermore, in a business system on of the reasons firms form ‘linkages and relationship with one another is for the purpose of access to financial capital. It was likewise the case that in the overall process of development financial market in particular serves the broad purpose of mobilization of surplus resources or saving from savers.
Modern technology entry into the market has largely contributed to the welfare of the economy varying from the reduced paperwork, security, transport, communication and even reduced manual work. Paperwork has been an unseen consumer of every economy since it is just viewed as a normal procedure. There has been easier maintenance of security in delivery of products in terms of tracking cars and their routes, this has brought quick and cheaper means of retrieving of lost goods or even information.
Organization culture is an important concept and a pervasive one in terms of its impact. The literature suggests an ambiguity in terms of the link with organizational performance as strong cultures have been shown to hinder performance (unadaptive) and there is also a problem of isolating the impact of corporate culture on performance. Understanding of corporate culture and cultural types also helps our understanding of why managerial reforms may impact differently within and between organizations. An organization with a predominantly internal process culture, for example, may be more resistant to reforms aimed at promoting innovation.

2.5 Conceptual Framework
Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework
Independent Variables Dependent Variable

Source: Author (2018)
2.5.1 Company Policy
A company n policy is a unilateral statement by the employer of a decision it does not want to make again and again over time – what days we are open, what times we open and close, who gets how much vacation and sick leave, extra. Once announced, we need not decide anything but exceptions. The policy is devised by the company’s board of directors after a thorough assessment has been done of all the internal and external factors, including all applicable state and federal rules and regulations, that can affect the corporation’s objectives, operations, and future ambitions.
2.5.2 Employee Training
Training is a systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given task or job. It can take place in a number of ways, on the job or off the job; in the organization or outside organization. With quality training it means that the employees will have better knowledge on what need to be done which will bring about easy budgeting prices in non-governmental organizations.
2.5.3 Financial Capacity
Finance can defined as the act and the science of managing money. Finance is also the capital needed by an organization in its activities, which then generate returns and help maximize a shareholders wealth. Cash is the lifeblood of a venture any no matter how big or small moves on cash and not profit, only with cash you cannot pay bill with profit only with cash. You cannot pay employees with profits, only with cash. Organizations with proper and sound understanding of the finance function are more advantaged compared to their competitors
2.5.4 Information Technology
Information technology in an organization is a very valuable asset which helps to conduct businesses where it involves knowledge, tools, equipment’s and work techniques used by an organization. Organizations with highly technical information technology enjoy more advantage when it comes to distribution of their products unlike organizations which do not have highly technical information technology aspects have difficulties.
2.5.5 Organization Culture
Management systems are directly related to continuous learning cultures that engage in training and development and encourage employee improvement and initiative. Other cultural measures such as employees’ reactions when training is applied, language use and congruence of the training with the organizations cultural norms and structure are also likely to affect management development.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This section highlights the research design and methodology used in the study. It was divided into five parts namely; research design, target population, sampling design, and data collection instruments and data analysis methods.
3.2 Research Design
According to Kothari, (2008) research design is the plan and structure of investigation so conceived as to obtain answers to research questions. The researcher will use descriptive research design. The design was preferred because its concerned with answering questions such as who, what, which, how, when and how much. A descriptive study will be carefully designed to ensure complete description of the situation, making sure that there is minimum bias in the collection of data and to reduce errors in interpreting the data to be collected.
3.3 Target Population
A population is an entire group of individuals, events or objects having common characteristics that conform to a given specification. The population is the full set of cases from which a sample is taken Mugenda and Mugenda, (2009). In this research the researcher will use a target population of 122 employees which will include top management, middle management and support staff of the organization.
Table 3.1 Target Population
Category Target population Percentage
Top Management 8 7
Middle Management 26 21
Lower Management 88 72
Total 122 100
Source Author: (2018)

3.4 Sample Design
A sample is a finite part of a statistical population whose properties are studied to gain information about the whole (Kothari, 2008). Stratified random sampling will be used because the group was heterogeneous and the researcher wanted each member of the target population to have an equal chance of participating in the study. Sample size will be picked by use of stratified random method with the strata divided with the population in each stratum which was 50% and this will enable the researcher to get the much needed information from the findings.
Table 3.2 Sample Size
Category Frequency Sample Size Percentage
Top Management 8 4 6
Middle Management 26 13 25
Lower Management 88 44 69
Total 122 61 100
Source: Author (2018)
3.5 Data Collection Procedures
The major instrument which will be used in the data collections is mainly the questionnaires. The questionnaires will be designed in both open ended and closed questions whereby they will be hand delivered to the various departments under study. In open ended questions spaces will be provided for the respondents to give the relevant explanation thus giving them an opportunity and freedom to express their feelings. The questionnaires will be hand delivered to the respondents.
3.5.1 Validity and Reliability of Research Instruments
Validity refers to whether the research measures what it was intended to. Reliability can be identified as the extent to which the measurement of a test remains consistent over repeated tests of the same subject under identical conditions (Kothari, 2008). A pilot study will be done to identify elements of study population and unit of analysis. During the study, draft questions will be pre-tested to remove ambiguity and achieve high degree precision. On the other hand, questions which will not yield the required data will be discarded. All the units of analysis will be comprehensively studied and whole population taken into account.
3.6 Data Analysis Methods
The researcher will be interested in analyzing information in a systematic way in order to come to some useful conclusion and recommendation that will be based on the objectives of the study. The study will use qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative method will be used to analyze open ended questions where the researcher will select the common words and phrases based on the opinion of the respondents. The quantitative methods will be used to analyze closed ended questions which the research has provided answers choices to the respondents. Data will be represented using charts, graphs, figures and tables.

REFERENCES
Armstrong. (2007) Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology. Washington DC: IGI Global publishers.
Baily (2002) Understanding the Technology of Computer Technology Diffussion. Netherlands: CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Poplicy Analysis.
Bemis (2004). Engineering An Endless Frontier. Calfornia: Harvard University Press.
Brian (2006). Quality Management. Chicago: New Harbinger publishers.
Chipper (2006) Modern Information Management System: Theory and Practice. 4th Edition. London: High Holborn House.
Cole (2002). Product Portfolio Management And corporate Performance in The Courier Firms. New Jersey : Emerald Group Publisher.
Crombie (2014). Science and Technology in World History. Sommerville: JHU Press Publisher.
Dessels (2003) Macroeconomic Determinants of System Development, Journal of Applied Economics
Felstead (2005). Quality Teaching and Capability. Europe: International University College publishers.
Feltus (2008). Research on Quality. washington DC: Routledge publishers.
Ford (2010). European Jornal of Innovation Management. Europe: MCB Up Limited Publisher.
Felstead (2008). Understanding Media, Culture and Technology. Netherlands: Cengage Learning publishers.
Hill (2003). A new Generation In International Strategic Management. United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishers.
Gunter (2003) The impact of Technology on Modern Firms, 8th Edition, Mc Graw Hill International Publishers, London, UK
Jessop (2005) Object Oriented Systems Design: An Integrated Approach, Prentice Hall, New York, USA
Jones (2008) Building Employee Competence and Skills, 2nd Edition, Addison Wesly Publishing Company, New York, USA
Korth (2005) Information System Management Concepts and Strategies, 7th Edition, Pvt Ltd Publishers, Brussels, Germany
Kothari (2004) Research Methodology Methods and Techniques, 2nd Edition, New Age international Limited Publisher, New Delhi, India
Kootnz (2005) A handbook of Courier Management System, 9thEdition, Copenhagen Page Ltd, London, UK
Mayors (2007) The Determinants of Management System in the Middle-Eastern and North African Region
Muchemi (2006) Management System Implementation: Past, Present and Future, 6th Edition Western Publishers, New York, USA
Mugenda (2009) “Research Methodology Methods and Techniques. 2nd Edition, New Age International Limited Publisher, New Delhi, India
Mullins (2009) “Corporations, culture and commitment: Motivation and social control in organizations.” California Management Review
Pandency (2005). Corporate governance, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Parlick (2008) Data Transfer and IT, 6th Edition Western Publishers, New York, USA
Phegan (2002) Management System for Virtual Money, 7th Edition, New York: Oxford University Press, California, USA
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Stacey (2007) Organization Theory and Behavior, 8th Edition, Mc Graw Hill International Publishers, London, UK
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William (2004) 4th Edition, Real Estate Finance and Investment, Mc Graw Hill, Michgan-USA.

APPENDIX II
QUESTIONAIRE
1. Please answer questions by putting a tick ? in the appropriate box or by writing in the space provided.
2. SECTION 1: GENERAL INFORMATION
3. Gender:
Male { }
Female { }
2. Age Analysis of the Respondents
18-30 Years { }
31-40 Years { }
41-50 Years { }
Above 50 Years { }
3. What is your Highest Level of Education?
Secondary { }
College { }
University { }
4. For how long have you served as an employee of G4S?
Less than 5 Years { }
6 – 10 Years { }
11 – 15 Years { }
Over 15 Years { }
SECTION 2: COMPANY POLICY
7. Does company policy affect implementation of courier services information systems in Kenya?
Yes { }
No { }

8. How would you rate the effects of company policy on implementation of courier services information systems in Kenya?
Very Large Extent { }
Large Extent { }
Small Extent { }
No Effect { }
Please explain
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
SECTION 3: EMPLOYEE TRAINING
9. Does employee training affect implementation of courier services information systems in Kenya?
Yes { }
No { }
10. How would you rate the effects of employee training on implementation of courier services information systems in Kenya?
Very Large Extent { }
Large Extent { }
Small Extent { }
No Effect { }
Please Explain
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
SECTION 4: FINANCIAL CAPACITY
11. Does financial capacity affects on implementation of courier services information systems in Kenya?
Yes { }
No { }

12. How would you rate the effects of financial capacity on implementation of courier services information systems in Kenya?
Very Large Extent { }
Large Extent { }
Small Extent { }
No Effect { }
Please Explain
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
SECTION 5: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
13. Does information technology affect implementation of courier services information systems in Kenya?
Yes { }
No { }
14. To what extent does information technology affect implementation of courier services information systems in Kenya?
Very Large Extent { }
Large Extent { }
Small Extent { }
No Effect { }
Please Explain
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
SECTION 5: ORGANIZATION CULTURE
15. Does organization culture affect implementation of courier services information systems in Kenya?
Yes { }
No { }

16. To what extent does organization culture affect implementation of courier services information systems in Kenya?
Very Large Extent { }
Large Extent { }
Small Extent { }
No Effect { }
Please Explain
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Thank you for your Cooperation

APPENDIX II
WORK PLAN
Details December January February
Research
Proposal Writing

Proposal Presentation

Source: Author (2018)

APPENDIX III
RESEARCH BUDGET
Particulars
Cost
Typing And Printing
5000
Transport
3500
Internet
1500
Total
10,000
Source: Author (2018)

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