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GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, GODHRA
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD
2018
SAFETY OF LABOURS AT VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION SITES
A
PROJECT REPORT
Submitted by
BARIA UNNATI (150600106005)
MULCHANDANI NILAM (150600106024)
PATEL ASTHA (150600106030)
Guided By
Prof. D. S. Upadhyaya
In Partial fulfillment for the award of the degree
Of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
In
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, GODHRA
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
20002503473452018
Date:
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “SAFETY OF LABOURS AT VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION SITES” has been carried out by BARIA UNNATI (150160600005), MULCHANDANI NILAM (150600106024), and PATEL ASTHA (150600106030), under my guidance in fulfillment of the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Engineering (7th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2018-19.

————————
(PROF. D. S. UPADHYAYA)
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
CIVIL ENGG. DEPT.

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GEC, GODHRA
INSTITUTIONAL GUIDE ————————
(PROF. S. L. PANCHAL)
HEAD
CIVIL ENGG. DEPT.

GEC, GODHRA
————————
(EXAMINER)
CERTIFICATE
DATE:
This is to certify that the students BARIA UNNATI (150600106005), MULCHANDANI NILAM (150600106024) and PATEL ASTHA (150600106030) of 7th semester, Civil Engineering Department, Government Engineering College, Godhra have attend our/my construction site at HATTEN PALACE NEAR ,GOTRI during 25/09/2018 and observed as well as have done the site visit and collected all the required details and data from the site under my observation for their subject:217001 – project I having title “SAFETY OF LABOURS AT VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION SITES “.

——————————
(Mr. PRAMOD MISTRY)
SITE ENGINEER
BARODA DISTRICT

SELF-DECLARATION
We,
BARIA UNNATI, MULCHANDANI NILAM & PATEL ASTHA Students of CIVIL ENGINEERING branch, enrollment number 150600106005, 150600106024 & 150600106030, ENROLLED AT GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, GODHRA. Here by certify and declare the following:
We have defined our project based on inputs at GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, GODHRA and each of us will make significant efforts to make attempt the project work at my college or at any location under the direct and guidelines of PROF. D. S. UPADHYAYA. We will adopt all ethical practices to share credit amongst all the Contributors based on their contributions during the project work.

The project work is not copied from any previously done projects directly.

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, GODHRA, to the best of our knowledge is a genuine institute engaged in the professional service/social organizations.

We understand and accept the above declaration if found to be untrue, it can result in Punishment /cancellation of project definition to us including failure in the subject of project work.

NAME CONTACT NO. SIGN
BARIA UNNATI 9081162932 MULCHANDANI NILAM 8200312201 PATEL ASTHA 9924046753 DATE:
PLACE: GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, GODHRA
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe would like to express our appreciation and gratitude to Mr. PRAMOD MISTRY, SITE ENGINEER of HYATTE PLACE (NILMBER GROUP, [email protected]) for his help, support, and time for this study. His guidance have been very valuable to us in completing this project work successfully.

We take this opportunity to express our profound gratitude and regards to our project guide PROF. D.S.UPADHYAYA for his exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the course of this Project. The blessing, help and guidance given by him time to time shall carry us a long way in the journey of life on which we are about to embark.

We are obliged to all staff members of CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, for providing valuable information. We are grateful for their cooperation during the period of our assignment.

Lastly, we thank almighty, our Parents, brother, sisters and friends for their constant encouragement without which this assignment would not be possible.

ENROLLMENT NO. NAME SIGN
150600106005 BARIA UNNATI 150600106024 MULCHANDANI NILAM 150600106030 PATEL ASTHA ABSTRACTIn India, the growth of construction industry development is comparatively higher than other industries, but the safety level of sector is quite lower than any other industries. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of almost important. Coordination between client, contractors and workforce is needed for safe work condition is very much lacking in construction sector. Occupational safety in the construction sector is very poor in developing countries. The main objective of this study to evaluate the safety performance at construction sites .For this works various literatures are reviewed regarding current safety rules for workers, causes of accidents and statics reviews at small and large construction sites.

In this project, the case of “OBSERVATION, SURVEY, DATA COLLLECTION & DATA ANAYLSIS” is studied. The site visits described that most of projects running between unsafe to unsafe level.

Contents

COVER PAGE……………………………………………………………………….iCERTIFICATE……………………………………………………………………………..ii
SELF-DECLARATION……………………………………………………………………iv
ACKNOWLEDMENT……………………………………………………………………..v
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………………vi TOC o “1-3” h z u

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION………………………………………..…1-8
1.1 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………1
1.2 WHAT IS SAFETY ?…………………………………………………………………….5
1.3 TYPES OF ACCIDENTS………………………………………………..……………6
1.4 NEED FOR A SAFETY…………………………………………….………………….6
1.5 HEALTH & SAFETY AT WORK……………………………………………………….7
1.6 SATUTORY PROVISIONS OF SAFETY OF LABOURS IN INDIA……………..7
1.7 SAFETY ORGANIZATION & PERFORMANCE………………………………….7
1.8 METHODOLOGY OF REORT………………………………………….…………..8
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF REPORT……………………………………………………8
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………..……..9-18
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY………………………………………..19-33
3.1 TITLE OF STUDY…….…………………………………………………………….19
3.2 LOCATION OF STUDY ……………………………………………………………21
3.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY…………………….…………………..…………………23
3.4 SOURCE OF INFORMATION………………………………………..……………24
3.5 DATA COLLECTION,ANALYSIA & INTERPRETATIONS……….……………27
CHAPTER 4: DATA COLLECTION……………………………….…..34-67
CHAPTER 5: DATA ANALYSIS……………………………………….….…68
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION………………………………………………92
CANVAS ACTIVITY………………………………………………………93-96
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………….97-99

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
Construction work is a hazardous land based job. In India, Construction industry is the second larger employer when compared to agriculture. Some construction site jobs include building houses, roads, bridges, workplaces and repair & maintain infrastructures. The numbers of fatal accidents taking place at construction site is quite alarming and the major causes was found to be the fall of persons from height, through openings, being struck by objects, electrocutions and being caught in between two objects. This work includes many hazardous task conditions working in excavation, noise dust, power tool and equipment’s.

In Construction sector labour force is 8.5% of total world labour force and it contributes to 17.3% of total global occupational accidents. The fatality rates in construction sites are more than other industrial sector. From the results of Occupational Safety and Health Administration surveyed on the causes of construction fatalities, it was shown that 25% of all claims reported every year in construction were due to falls from height, 8.4% were struck by objects, 1.5% were caught in between incidents and 8.5% were electrocution.

There are many techniques that can be adopted for labours safety such as Safety organization, Safety training, Site layout, First aid, lightning, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and welfare facilities. But the absence of better communication among various department involved and lack of proper inspection are the major reasons for accidents occurring at construction sites.

Construction projects carried out in the large scale are following good safety performance and measures as a safety department available in these companies, but for the small construction sites taken by local contractors are not aware about safety requirements of labours that caused site accidents. This papers examines current status of safety at workplace and to create a safely environment for the workers of construction companies. This study includes physical visits of construction sites and observing the site condition.

1.2 WHAT IS SAFETY?
Safety is the state of being ‘safe’ the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes. Safety can also refer to the control of recognized hazards in order to achieve an acceptable level of risk. Safety is the condition of a ‘steady state’ of an organization or place doing what it is supposed to do.
1.3 TYPES OF ACCIDENTS
Accidents are of different types. They may be classified as major and minor ones, depending upon the severity the injury. An accidents which ends in a death, is a major one. A scratch or cut which does not seriously disable him/her is minor accident, but an accident never the less.

An accident may be internal or external. If a worker falls from height, it is possible he or she may show no external signs of injury, but he or she may have fractured a bone or strained muscle or spinal cord which is internal injury. A worker may be disabled for a week, a day, an hour and a few months, it called temporary disability. If the worker will not recover fully his or her disability is permanent.

1.3 NEED FOR SAFETY
Cost of saving: From the past decades, need for safety awareness among construction industries was realized. This is due to high cost associated with work related injuries, workers compensation, insurance premium, indirect cost of injuries and litigation. Safety rules; regulations not only over come issues like poor quality of work, unsafe working condition and lack of environmental control but also reduce cost and enhance productivity.

Increased productivity: Safety promotes productivity. The connection between workplace health and safety programs and worker productivity is going strength. The benefits can include reduced sick pay and workers compensation claims along with decreased absenteeism and employer turnover.

Moral: Safety is important on human ground too. An employee is a worker in the construction sector and bread winner his/her family. Management must undertake accident prevention measures to minimize the pain and suffering to injured worker. The happiness of his/her family depends upon the safety and health of the worker.
Legal: Protecting employee health and safety is a legal imperative. There are legal reasons too for undertaking safety measures, there are laws covering occupational health ; safety and penalties for non- compliance have becomes quite serve.

AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is to create an environment, which ensure the greatest ease of work and removes all causes of workers.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main objectives of the study are given below:
To study safe system of working.

To study current status of safety of labours at construction site.

To study the awareness of the workers about safety in the work place.

To find the occurrence of accidents happened at work place.

To give suggestions to improve the safety of the organization.

1.7 STUDY METHODOLOGY
A brief overview of methodology will be used in this study is given below:
Identify current status of safety: various literatures were being reviewed.

TO study about various safety Act regarding labours:We have done detailed studied The Building and other Construction Workers Act, 1996 and other Safety rules ; regulation.
To find occurrence of hazards at workplace: for this we have observed various construction site and notice some safety factors used at site.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF REPORTThis report is presented in total six chapters. The remaining five chapters of the report are organized as follows.

Chapter 2, Literature Review contains the study of work done in the study of safety performance at construction sites by others. What study others have done, how the study was done, which were the methodologies they have used what solutions or conclusions they got and how that can be helpful in this study is to be checked.

Chapter 3 contains the detail explanations about The Building and other Construction Workers Act, 1996 and other Safety Act for workers.

Chapter 4 includes the observation data of the visited Construction site.

Chapter 5 contains the conclusion of project.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
This section describes some of what others have done in related work in order to give brief idea about the overall concept of precision, accuracy and time expenditure of total station.

A.A.G. Hassanein ; R.S. Hanna(2008), from a study conducted by Egyptian construction industry, it was concluded that safety programs organized by Egypt contractors were less formal and the accident insurance costs were fixed irrespective of the contractor’s safety performance.

Christopher Samuel & Vamsi Munagala (2016), the purpose of the paper was to review the literature and to establishing baseline of OHS preparedness in a large scale construction company. The research results indicated that expect for four major categories the company’s OHS procedures and practices were glossy inadequate in ensuring the health and safety of its employees. This study has sensitized the management of the company to take remedial measures to enhance safety and work towards an OHS management system based on the OHSA (18001:2007) standard.

David E. Cantor (2008), has call for additional research into the human operational and regulatory issues that contribute to workplace safety in the supply chain. This paper indentifies several potential research opportunities that can increase awareness of the importance of improving a firm’s workplace safety practices.

DOSH (2005), Explained PPE as many equipment warn by personas work to project as work to protect him against risk to safely and health and any accessory delighted to protect him while performing task.
Elbeltagi E. & Hegazy T. (2002), affirmed that the major causes of accidents in the construction is due to falls. Therefore, proper safety zones around the construction areas should be provided to prevent harm rain falling objects. According to, them some of the regulation were described by the uniform building code, 1985 included at least 10 feet clearance of building or structure should be kept clear from using driveways between and around open yard storage shall be at least 15 feet wide and free from accumulation of rubbish and materials stored inside buildings under construction shall not be placed within 6 feet of any hoist way or inside floor opening.

Gordan R. (1999), studied Hong Kong safety culture and he found one of the practices condition at construction sites, it is essential to PPE to the workers there are several types of PPE that workers need at the construction site such as head protection equipment, face and eyes protection equipment, hand protection equipment and body protection.

Hamalaimen.P (2010), according to him numbers of total employment, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), urbanization number of women and time series analysis of developed countries could be useful to estimate the occupational accidents and work related diseases. To estimate the global estimate of the occupational accident, active population.

Kumar Neeraj Jha & Dilip A Patel (2016), according to them in Indian construction sector the number of people dying in construction could be anywhere from 11,614 to 22080.The total 48000 occupational accidents occurring annually in India. The fatality rate of UK, Singapore and Taiwan are reported to be 0.02 in 2013, 0.05 in 2012 and 0.125 in 2011 in Indian construction sector as per their estimate. This estimate will draw the attention of various stakeholders of construction sector and motivate them to make safe work places and thus save the lives of workers.

Mahalingam & Levitt (2007), according to them one of the critical safely issues in the global projects is on the attitude of local contractors and laboures towards safely. He reported that the local laboures of India and Taiwan have low level of safely awareness on the construction site.

Rosli Ahmad (2008), Good safety programs would certainly help in reducing injuries to construction site and also to minimize construction cost increase productivity and profitability and more importantly it could serve save lives of workers and consequently contribute positively to the construction industry and the nation as whole.

S.Kanchana, P.Sivaprakash and Sebastion Josephi (2015), they concluded that the major causes for construction accidents is due to injuries .Employer can always check legislation and draw up to proper health and safety plan specific to employer workplace and employees. The provisions available in the laws that can be followed by employers for ensuring safe construction site environment can be studied in details.

T.Subramani & R. Lord Sonmillar (2014), the aim was to presents the literature which provides evidence to focused dedication inwards safety is needed from large construction at all level. Owners of large projects can more actively participate in construction safety management in each stage of projects execution including project design contract selection, contract development, construction phase, selecting safe contractors and developing safety and health environment surrounding the construction sites, through safety projects and safety training.

Tan chin keng and Nadeera Abdul Rozak (2014), From these research they concluded that generally the construction site has good and structured safety practices namely safety policy, education and training site, safety inspection, safety auditing, safety meeting , site safety organization , personal protective equipments , emergency supports and safety measuring devices ,fall protective systems and safety precautions .They also reviewed three aspects for the implementation of safety practices like awareness of workers, commitment of top management and the allocation of resources.

Wilson Jr. and E.E.Koehn , suggested that safely practices vary with construction sites as every site has unique safely aspects larger construction projects we better organized where as small to medium firms do not have an adequate safety programs or person to oversee safety criteria.

X. Huang and J. Hinze (2003), analyzed accidents caused due to fall of workers at the construction sites and the results showed that most off fall accidents takes place of elevation of less than 9.15 m occurring. Primarily on new construction projects of commercial building and residential projects of relatively low construction cost.

CHAPTER 3: VARIOUS ORGANIZATION & LAWS

3.1 INTRODUCTIONSafety and health are of almost importance in every human activity. Occupational Health and Safety (OSH) are particularly important in case of construction activities as risks are inherently associated with them. The Working Group on Occupational Safety and Health of the ministry has outlined several measures for implementation. The OHSAS standards, 18001:2007 and 18002:2008 provide a framework by which both Occupational Health and Safety can be ensured by any organization. In India, the Ministry of Labour and Employment (MoLE) has stipulated several laws that would ensure safety and health in the workplace, including the Indian construction industry. The Ministry of Labour and Employment issued a policy document on Safety, Health and Environment in the workplace in 2009 that covers the construction sector as well. According to this policy, a national level preventative safety and health culture will be developed (MoLE, 2009).
Occupational health and safety is a discipline with a broad scope involving specialized fields. In its broadest sense, its aim at:
The promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations.

The protection of their workers in their employment from risks resulting adverse to health.

The preventing among workers of adverse effects on health caused by their working conditions.

The adaption of work to humans.

The OSH challenges in India may be summarized as follows:
Huge workforce in unorganised sector
Availability of cheap labour due to high unemployment
Meagre public spending on health
Inadequate implementation of exiting legislation
Large numbers of unrecognised / unreported occupational illness
Infrastructure problems
Delay implementation of national policy on OSH
A number of Labour Laws are applicable to workers engaged at construction sites. These are as follows:
1) Contract Labour (Regulation & Operative) Act, 1970
2) Minimum Wages Act, 1948
3) Payment of Wages Act, 1936
4) Equal Remuneration Act, 1976
5) Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment
And Condition of Services) Act, 1979
6) The Building and Other Construction Workers Act,
1996
The Building and Other Construction Workers Act,1996
CHAPTER 4: OBSERVED DATA AT SITE

Name of site: Nilamber Triumph Commercial Hub, near Nilamber circle, vasna bhayli road, Vadodara.

Duration of visit: This visit was carried out by us for 1 day only.
4.1 LOCATION OF SITE

4.2 SCOPE OF INFORMATION
Primary data: The primary data has been obtained from the Site Engineer and workers of visited site through observation and little Conversation.

Secondary data: The secondary data has been obtained from published as well as unpublished literature on the topic and from journals, research papers, thesis, websites, etc.

4.3 STATICS OF WORKERS
SR NO. AGE OF LABOURS NO OF WORKERS %
1 Below 25 10 17
2 26-30 18 30
3 31-35 22 36
4 36-40 4 7
5 Above 40 6 10

4.4 CONVERSATION WITH SITE ENGINEER
With conversation with site engineer according to workers safety, he told about the various accidents occurs during the construction like struck by object, slipping in opening, electrocution, scratch and cut at any part of body.

He also told about the recent safety precautions, which are taken to reduce or to minimize the rate of accidents, which were occurs in past at Construction site during above construction work. The following measures are used by this construction site for safety purpose:
Providing PPE
Conveying safety meeting to encourage the laboures to aware about safety and use the safety equipments or to concern the safety.

To providing net for fall protection.

4.5 PROCEDFORM
He told that they appointing the site Safety Engineer to recognize the following of safety rules and regulations.

GUIDELINES OF SAFETY AT CONSTRUCTION SITES:
This guideline has been prepared with a view to providing essential information to job
Contractors/employers to ensure health and safety on construction sites.

ORGANISING THE SITE
1. Planning the work
Make a good planning by gathering as much information about the project and the project site
Before works begin to ensure safety during construction phase. Information that could be
Sought should be: –
(a) Underground services.

(b) Presence of live bare electrical conductors, underground/overhead insulated cables.

Advice from the authority concerned should be sought prior to start of work.

(c) Ground conditions.

(d) Contract documents.

(e) Nearby schools, footpaths and roads.

(f) Other activities going on the site.

2. Organising the work
Responsibilities regarding safety and health between different stakeholders should be clearly
allocated: –
(a) Between client/main contractor/subcontractor.

(b) By appointment of competent supervisors/safety and health officers.

(c) By proper coordination on site between parties.

3. Common facilities to be provided
Ensure provision of basic facilities to ensure safety, health and welfare of employees.

4. Site access
Adequate, safe and separate pedestrian and vehicular traffic routes should be provided on and
Around the site.

5. Site boundaries
Fence the construction site to prevent the entry of unauthorised persons on construction sites,
Which are located in built-up areas and alongside vehicular and pedestrian traffic routes.

6. Public safety
Ensure public safety through appropriate fencing of site or by other means.

7. Lighting
Ensure adequate lighting of all worksite through natural and/or artificial lighting.

8. Site tidiness
(a) The site should be kept tidy.

(b) Walkways and stairs should be kept free of slipping and tripping hazards.

(c) Ensure there are no protruding nails on loose or fixed materials.

9. Storage areas
(a) Set up storage areas for plants, materials, flammable substances (e.g. flammable
liquids and gases) and hazardous substances (e.g. chemicals).

(b) Store flammable materials away from other materials and protected from accidental
Ignition.

(c) Prevent obstruction of access routes/emergency escapes by proper storage of
materials.

(d) Materials to be properly stacked to prevent falls.

10. Fire Safety
Ensure fire safety on the construction site by: –
(a) Providing adequate means for fighting fire.

(b) Training of personnel in the use of these fire-fighting equipments EXCAVATIONS
(a) Locate and identify all utility services, such as electrical, water and sewer in the area
Before beginning to excavate.

(b) Don’t use pointed tools to probe for underground electrical cables.

(c) Remove or secure trees, utility poles, rocks or similar objects near the edge of an
excavation to prevent workers from being injured.

3
(d) Support the sides of excavations by sheet piling, shoring and bracing to guard against
danger to workers from fall or dislodgement of earth, rock or other material.

(e) Inspect excavation slopes and/or supporting systems daily for erosion or deterioration.

(f) Keep excavated materials back at least 600 mm (2 ft.) from the edge of any trench
excavation and 1.2 m (4 ft.) from any other excavation.

(g) Erect substantial guardrails or barriers around excavations to prevent workers or other
persons from falling into them.

(h) Provide a ladder when workers are required to enter excavations over 1.5 m (5 ft) in depth.

(i) Do not place or move load, plant or equipment near the edge of any excavation where it is
likely to cause its collapse and thereby endanger any person unless precautions such as
the provision of shoring or piling are taken to prevent the sides from collapsing.

(j) Provide anchored stop blocks and barriers to prevent vehicles being driven into the
excavation.

(k) Do not allow heavy vehicles near the excavation unless the support work has been
specially designed to permit it.

(l) If an excavation is likely to affect the security of a structure on which persons are working,
precautions should be taken to protect the structure from collapse by providing shoring.

WORKING AT HEIGHT
1.General provisions
Ensure that working platform is secure and check that it: –
(i) will support the weight of workers using it and any materials and equipment they are
likely to use or store on it.

(ii) is stable and will not overturn.

(iii) is footed on stable ground or on a stable support or structure.

Provide guard rails, barriers, etc. at open edges, including edges of floors, floor openings, and edges of roofs and working platform.

2. Guard rails
Guard rails should: –
(a) Be made from any material, provided they are strong and rigid enough to prevent people
from falling and be able to withstand other loads likely to be placed on them.

(b) Be fixed to a structure, or part of a structure capable of supporting them.

(c) Include: –
(i) A main guard rail at least 900 mm above any edge from which people are liable to fall.

(ii) A toe board at least 150 mm high.

(iii) A sufficient number of intermediate guard rails or suitable alternatives.

Safe working platforms
All working platforms should be: –
(a) Fully boarded and securely fixed to prevent displacement.

(b) Strong enough to support the load usually placed on it (workers and materials).

(c) Provided with toe-boards so as to prevent materials and tools from falling over the
edges.

General access scaffolds
All scaffolds should be: –
(a) Properly designed, constructed, erected and maintained so as to prevent collapse or
accidental displacement.

(b) Based on a firm and level foundation.

(c) Erected on a firm ground capable of supporting the weight of the scaffold and any load
likely to be placed on it.

(d) Braced and tied into a permanent structure or otherwise stabilize
(e) Provided with platforms that are fully boarded and wide enough for the work and for
access.

(f) Provided with scaffold boards that are properly supported and rest on at least three
supports.

(g) Have a safe ladder or other access onto the work platforms.

Safe use of access ladders
(a) Any ladder should be properly fixed to prevent slipping.

(b) A good handhold should be provided to the ladder.

(c) The ladder should be leaned at the proper angle to minimize the risk of slipping outwards,
that is, about 1 m out at the base for every 4 m in height.

(d) The top of the ladder should rest against a solid surface and not on fragile or other
insecure materials such as cement or plastic guttering.

(e) Both feet of the ladder should rest on a firm footing and cannot slip.

(f) If the ladder is more than 3 m long, or used as a way to and from a workplace, it should be
secured from falling by fixing it at the top or sometimes at base.

(g) If the ladder cannot be fixed a second person should secure the ladder at the base while it
is being used.

(h) The ladder should extend a sufficient height (about 1 m) above any landing place where
workers will get on and off it unless some other adequate handhold is available.

Care of ladders
(a) Ladders should be inspected regularly by a competent person and damaged ladders
should be removed from service.

(b) Ladders should be properly stored on racks under cover and above ground.

(c) Ladders should not be hung from its rungs.

Roof works
(a) All roof-work operations should be pre-planned and properly supervised.

(b) Roof work should only be undertaken by workers who are physically and psychologically fit
and have the necessary knowledge and experience for such work.

(c) Work on roofs should not be carried on in weather conditions that threaten the safety of
workers.

MOVING, LIFTING AND HANDLING LOADS
3.31 Manual handling
(a) Work site and storage of materials should be planned so that manual handling is reduced
to a minimum.

(b) Manual handling should be done by the kinetic lifting technique and the person involved
should be properly trained.

3.32 Hoists
(a) Select a hoist, which is suitable for the site and capable of lifting the loads required.

(b) To prevent people being struck by the platform or other moving parts: –
(i) Enclose the hoist way at places where people might be struck, e.g., working platforms
or window/door openings.

(ii) Provide gates at all landings and at ground level
(c) Prevent falling down the hoist way by making sure: –
(i) the hoist way is fenced where people could fall down it.

(ii) the gates at landings are kept closed except during loading and unloading.

(iii) the edge of the hoist platform is close to the edge of the landing so that there is no
gap to fall through.

(d) Prevent being hit by falling materials by: –
(i) stopping loads falling from the platform, e.g., make sure wheelbarrows are not
overfilled.

(ii) not carrying loose loads. Put loose loads in proper container or use a hoist with an
enclosed platform.

(iii) not overloading the platform.

(iv) enclosing the hoistway.

(v) hoist should be used to carry materials only.

Lifts
Lifts for the carriage of persons need to be especially constructed and installed for the purpose,
with such features as mechanical and electrical interlocking devices on the cage and landing
gates.

Mobile cranes
(a) The crane should be able to lift the load on a site.

(b) It should be of such a size so that it can be used safely on a site.

(c) Crane’s inspection certificates should be up-to-date.

(d) The crane should be fitted with an automatic Safe Load Indicator, which should be in
good working order.

(e) The employer should ensure that the driver is trained and experienced in the operation of
the type of crane being used.

(f) The crane should be sited in a safe place, so that;
? The driver has a clear view of the site.

? It is well away from excavations and overhead powerlines.

? It is on level ground which can take its full weight and together with its maximum load
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Employers on construction sites need specific Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to ensure
their safety and health.
Safety helmet
(a) Employees should be provided with safety helmets to protect the head from injury due to
falling or flying objects or due to striking against objects or structures.

(b) Employers should ensure that the safety helmets are worn.

(c) When working at height, a strap should additionally be used to prevent the safety helmets
from falling.

Footwear
(a) Protective footwear should be provided to workers who are exposed to the risk of injury of
materials being dropped on their feet or nail or other sharp objects penetrating their sole.

(b) Where it is likely that employees will be working in water or wet concrete, appropriate
boots should be provided.

Goggles and safety spectacles
The employershould provide goggles or other suitable protective device when likely to be
exposed to eye or face injury from airborne dust or flying particles, dangerous substances,
harmful heat, light or other radiation, and in particular during welding, flame cutting, rock drilling,
concrete mixing or other hazardous work.

Gloves and protective clothing
Protective gloves and suitable protective clothing to protect hands or the whole body as
required when exposed to heat radiation or while handling hot, hazardous or other substances
which might cause injury to the skin should be provided by the employer
Other protective equipmentsWhere necessary, workers should be provided with and required to wear the following personal
protective equipment: –
(a) Ear protection when exposed to noise.

(b) Dust masks when exposed to excessive dust.

(c) Waterproof clothing and head coverings when working in adverse weather conditions.

(d) Safety harnesses with independently secured lifelines where protection against falls
cannot be provided by other appropriate means.

(e) Life vests and life preservers where there is a danger of falling into water.

(f) Distinguishing clothing or reflective devices or otherwise conspicuously visible material
when there is regular exposure to danger from moving vehicles.

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION
Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For construction project to be successful, safety of the structure as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right form the design stage till the completion and handling over of the structure.

Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subjected to construction site accident and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work condition which is very much lacking in Indian construction companies.

By completing this project, we have understand about the various act of labour safety, causes of accident, and the various ways or the methods which are adopted at sites to reduce the rate of accidents. In this project, we have carried out construction site visit, and got the information about type of accident to be occurs during the under construction work and carried out research work for causes of that accidents and also observed that type of precaution to be taken for reduce the rate of labour accidents for remaining construction work.
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