How does interest in physical activity and sports among adolescents change with age
In my literature review I will be looking at why do we lose interest in sports has we get older. With this question I would like to find out why. Also I will expand with this question I will start with adolescent’s age.
Adolescent is a process which young kids go through to an adult. This critical developmental period is usually described as the years between the onset of puberty and the establishment of social independence Curtis, Alexa C. (Steinberg, 2014). In other explanation Adolescence involves a maturity stage where in terms of hormones and physical development of the body, and is also considered by an increase in the complexity of group interactions and thus social behaviour Choudhury ,Blakemore, charman (Lerner and Steinberg, HYPERLINK “https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2555426/” l “B60” 2004).
According to (0) he says a test was done to measure up physical activity throughout childhood and adolescence (between 10 – 19) in different country. In the us is where the collected most of their data. The result came out to be that, physical activity change per year in all studies, was about “-7.0 (95 % confidence interval: ?8.8 to ?5.2), ranging from ?18.8 to 7.8″ (Dumith et al., 2011 pg 1). Dumith et al., (2011) goes on to say that most sub groups of variable analysed revealed a higher physical decline in boys has been greater than girls . the decline among girls is at a young age between the age of 9-12 years. However, the boys are declining later on around 13 to 16. at the end we see that drumith et al say that ” Despite its health benefits, the world literature suggests that PA level declines across the lifespan, particularly during adolescence.8 However, at present, there is no evidence based on a systematic review. Previous reviews have mixed study designs and have not been able to pool results across time”. (Dumith et al., 2011 pg.
What motivate the participation to physical active and playing sports.
Participation in physical activity is very important when you start at a young age up to your adolescent. We can say it is when children are more active and capable to play any sport. Motivation is important because it is the key drive of doing anything in life. When children pass through the transition to adolescent Motivation plays a big role at this stage because they are full of energy to be active. According ( HYPERLINK “https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1469029214001198” l “bib34” Ryan ; Deci, 2000) Motivation in sport is the key determinant behind every action taken and every effort exerted. Passion represents a motivational force providing the necessary resources to engage in the deliberate practice activities that are essential to reach expert-level performance (Verner-Filion , j.vallerand ,Mocanu,2017 pg. 20 ). According to the two authors we get the sense that motivation is driven by passion. Passion is the feeling you have towards whatever physical activity or sports your involved in. by having this sort of passion it’s what will motivate you to practice. According to Weiss , smith (2002) Peer relationship also plays a big part on motivating young adolescent to be physical active and involved in sport. Why? It because of family, friends and environment. Researcher examined that physical domain is proven to be more interesting due to making friends or having one. The reason behind these build up friendship it increases the participation in sports and physical activity with children and adolescents. Weiss, smith (Weiss & Ferrer-Caja, 2002 pg 420). To concluding this, we see that strong influence can help motivate young children to adolescent to keep physical activity throughout the adolescent years. This can help shape them to continue to be active.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1038/oby.2003.37https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743504002026The benefit and what is physical activity and mental health in sports with ages?
Physical activity is any movements of all of the body parts. Has a kid this is essential for a young child whether at school, with friends and at school they should be movement of the body. The world health organisation tells us that “Physical activity can be undertaken in many different ways: walking, cycling, sports and active forms of recreation (for example, dance, yoga, tai chi). Physical activity can also be undertaken at work and around the home. All forms of physical activity can provide health benefits if undertaken regularly and of sufficient duration and intensity.”(who,2018). A study was done by Ekelund et al.,( 2016) to see how much time we spend watching tv sitting down and people who watched it less, respected the national guide of 60 to 75 min per day. So the result came out that people that respected the guide line the chances of them being sick is little then the people spending time sitting without physical activity. It is good for the mental health and the wellbeing of the human being. According to Powell, Paluch and Blair, (2011) they believes that physical activity it saves us early accident the likes of early death, coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, type 2 diabetes, breast and colon cancer, excessive weight gain, injurious falls, depression, and loss of cognitive function. Also Haskell et al., (2007) says that “physical activity and health, persons who wish to further improve their personal fitness, reduce their risk for chronic diseases and disabilities or prevent unhealthy weight gain may benefit by exceeding the minimum recommended amounts of physical activity”. We see the two authors are agreeing on impact that physical sport has on a person life.
We cannot just be bias and only look at how physical activity helps the physical side. We also need to look how it has a good effect on the mental side. Tenenbaum and Eklund (Gorman, 2002) the author points out that exercise can reduce symptom of anxiety and depression. Tenenbaum and Eklund( Mayo Cline staff , 2005b ) point out that it can promotes and improves better mental functioning across the age span (mayo Clinic staff , 2005a; Warner,2004). Knowles, (2017) stated that there’s has been a lot chains of reviews about physical activity and a lot of evidence proving the all come in agreement. But Knowles does not agree with all of it ,he addresses saying “but associations between PA and other mental health problems, and whether PA can prevent mental health problems in the general population, are unclear”( Knowles, 2017)
What happening barriers
Researcher believe that the problems starts when the adolescent’s stage kicks in. A study has been done to check why are health in adolescent is still a problem. By reading Strong et al.,2005 Hills, Dengel and Lubans,( 2015) the two authors they addressed that the appropriate standard of physical activity are not being met. so it having a big impact on the health and wellbeing of children and adolescent.
The way it affecting them we see that there is a number of health problem, the common one known over weight and obesity. The appropriate national standard of physical activity with children is 60 plus. For an adult it recommends to at least a 150 minute e a day and 75 min a week (Who.int, 2018).
The barriers through not meeting this catear is that obesity level is gone up. Zabinski et al. “Obesity in childhood is a significant public health problem that requires comprehensive prevention and intervention efforts”(Zabinski et al., pg. 283 2003). Zabinski et al came across in his studies that the most common physical activity barriers recognised by a cross-section of children across the weight range include lack of time because of other obligations the likes of doing their homework and personal/individual barriers.
Salliss, Prochaska and Taylor,( 2000) addresses that Although there is about 80% of adolescents are estimated to spend at least 30 minzd21 being active in the us , probably less than half are active at least 60 minzd21 (12). About two-thirds of adolescent boys and one-quarter of adolescent girls report doing 20 min of sustained moderate to vigorous physical activity three times per week (12).in Australia (Ridgers et al., (2017) claims that only 13% of 12–14 year olds in Australia are currently engaging in a sufficient daily physical activity to benefit their health, “there is a need for efficacious strategies to increase activity levels”(Ridgers et al., 2017). He goes on to say that the reason behind this statement it because adolescents living in “disadvantaged areas who are an underrepresented group in physical activity interventions” (Ridgers et al., (2017).The author shows that the fact that disadvantage is linked with failures in physical activity during the teenage years and a greater risk of poor health outcomes across the life course. Ridgers et al., (2017).The author statement can be looked at as a barrier in a young adolescent physical activity.
According to O’Dea, (2003) , she outlined a couple of barriers that children and adolescent faces. The first one she said is preference for indoor activities.some young children , adolescent prefer to be indoor and read books and watch telvesion , others enjoy reading the book , for children will be playing with toys, computer game. The second point o’Dea, (2003) appoint is low energy level according to her she say that some children and young adolescent get tired and feel lazy some it because of lack of energy.third point is Time Controls with this we see the two authors o’dea (2003) and Zabinski et al., (2003) agreeing with each other about time constrain .odea 2003 addresses that jobs, homework’s are time consuming. She concludes that commitments impacts time management. The Third point was social factors here again we see an agreement between Weiss , smith (2002) and o’dea.in accordance with these two author they believe that peer pressure which contains friends/family sometime it can be also a barrier.e.g “activities Parental control/preferences Lack of parental support Lack of playmates or suitable playmates Teasing/bullying from peers Criticism from others (peers, teachers”. The last barriers o dea 2003 addresses is motivation. Motivation has we know motivation play a big part on being physical active. As prevouisly stated by prevouse authors that “Passion represents a motivational force providing the necessary resources to engage in the deliberate practice activities that are essential to reach expert-level performance” (Verner-Filion , j.vallerand ,Mocanu,2017 pg. 20 ).
O’dea 2003 says that Low level of self-motivation Low level of motivation from others Low perceived rewardshttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/105/6/e83.shorthttps://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa003277NOT FINISHED PROPERLY STILL NEEDS TO BE FIXED