Indications of cardio exercises
There are two types of cardio exercises
The connection between physical inactivity and the increased risk of CV morbidity, further data and studies supported the advantages of exercise on physical well-being. The 2010 recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO) provided activity recommendations based on three different age groups: Ages 5-17, 18-64, and > 64 years of age. In the age group of 5-17 years, individuals should accrue at least 60 min of moderate activity daily. Those in the group of 18-64 years should perform at least 150 min of moderate activity or at least 75 min of vigorous activity throughout the week. Finally, individuals above the age of 65 years are recommended similar length and intensity exercise programs as the prior group, but with a focus on activities to help enhance balance and to prevent falls (Myers J .2003, Fletcher GF, Balady G, Blair SN, Blumenthal J, Caspersen C, Chaitman B, Epstein S, Sivarajan Froelicher ES, Froelicher VF, Pina IL, Pollock ML.1995
WHO Guidelines Approved by the Guidelines Review Committee. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010)
The other advantages of cardio physical activity increase in the cardiac output and the improve the ability of muscles to extract and to utilize oxygen from the blood. This benefit is further compounded by the benefit physical exercise increased insulin sensitivity,improve cognitive functions function,release the stress With the benefit of physical exercise well established, the question remains which type of exercise provides the most effective and efficient means to help deter CV disease.
A recent meta-analysis published reveal that a decrease in the risk of all CV and diabetes mellitus incidence with increasing levels of physical activities. More meta-analysis showed that high level of free time physical activity had a beneficial effect on CV health by reducing the overall risk of incident CHD and stroke among men and women by 20% to 30%, while a moderate level of occupational physical activity might reduce 10% to 20% risk of CVD.( Wahid A, Manek N, Nichols M, Kelly P, Foster C, Webster P, Kaur A, Friedemann Smith C, Wilkins E, Rayner M, Roberts N, Scarborough P.,Li J, Siegrist J ,Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012)
Moreover, cardiac rehabilitation, which is physical exercise based, is a promising field which showed a favorable outcome among patients with heart failure and post-CVD events. ( Kaminsky LA, Jones J, Riggin K, Strath SJ ,Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2013 Jun; 3(2):73-9)
Examples of aerobic exercise include cycling, dancing, hiking, jogging/long distance running, swimming and walking. These activities can best be accessed via the aerobic capacity, which is defined by the ACSM as the product of the capacity of the cardiorespiratory system to supply oxygen and the capacity of the skeletal muscles to utilize oxygen (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013)
Different studies have been shown that the advantages of aerobic exercise in preventing CV disease. In 2002, Wisloff et all were the first to show the benefit of aerobic training in the myocardium after an ischemic attack. Their study was performed on adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, which were placed into groups categorized based on induced myocardial infarctions (MI) with and without exercise and controls with and without exercise. Their results showed a 15% reduction in the left ventricle hypertrophy post-infarction, as well as 12% and 20% decreases in myocyte length and width, respectively, with aerobic exercise. Furthermore, a 60% improvement was noted in myocardial contractility in subjects with an MI who were assigned to the training group, suggesting enhanced myocardial Ca2+sensitivity. They were able to conclude the beneficial effects of aerobic training on cardiac remodeling and myocardial contractility. ( Wisloff U, Loennechen JP, Currie S, Smith GL, Ellingsen 2002)
Moreover, aerobic exercise has been shown to have a good positive impact on CV health. Several studies have shown that aerobic exercise improves the lipid profile, particularly increasing the HDL-C. In an Australian study, aerobic exercise led to a small but statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (Blumenthal JA, Emery CF, Madden DJ, Coleman RE, Riddle MW, Schniebolk S, Cobb FR, Sullivan MJ, Higginbotham MB,Am J Cardiol. 1991)
Like aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise may exert a potentially beneficial influence on the CV system. In a Turkish study completed by Akseki Temür et al, the effects of anaerobic exercise were evaluated with a member of the natriuretic peptide family, known as C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). CNP is synthesized by the endothelium and offers a protective effect through its effects on the vascular tone of blood vessels, as well as exerting antifibrotic and antiproliferative properties. (Anatol J Cardiol. 2015).
Risk of Exercise for patients with coronary heart disease: acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, and sudden death. Over 80% of persons who reported cardiac arrest symptoms while exercising has been successfully resuscitated with prompt defibrillation (Thompson, P.D. 2007)
Blumenthal JA, Emery CF, Madden DJ, Coleman RE, Riddle MW, Schniebolk S, Cobb FR, Sullivan MJ, Higginbotham MB. Effects of exercise training on cardiorespiratory function in men and women older than 60 years of age. Am J Cardiol. 1991; 67:633–639.
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Lobstein DD, Mosbacher BJ, Ismail AH. Depression as a powerful discriminator between physically active and sedentary middle-aged men. J Psychosom Res. 1983; 27:69–76.
Wahid A, Manek N, Nichols M, Kelly P, Foster C, Webster P, Kaur A, Friedemann Smith C, Wilkins E, Rayner M, et al. Quantifying the Association Between Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5: pii: e002495.
Li J, Siegrist J. Physical activity and risk of cardiovascular disease–a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012; 9:391–407.
Myers J. Cardiology patient pages. Exercise and cardiovascular health. Circulation. 2003;107: e2–e5.
Fletcher GF, Balady G, Blair SN, Blumenthal J, Caspersen C, Chaitman B, Epstein S, Sivarajan Froelicher ES, Froelicher VF, Pina IL, et al. Statement on exercise: benefits and recommendations for physical activity programs for all Americans. A statement for health professionals by the Committee on Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation of the Council on Clinical Cardiology, American Heart Association. Circulation. 1996; 94:857–862.
WHO Guidelines Approved by the Guidelines Review Committee. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
Williams PT. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other risk factors for coronary heart disease in female runners. N Engl J Med. 1996; 334:1298–1303.
Thompson P.D. Et al. Exercise and Acute Cardiovascular Events: Placing the Risks into Perspective. MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN SPORTS & EXERCISE. 2007; DOI: 10.1249.
Patel, H., Alkhawam, H., Madanieh, R., Shah, N., Kosmas, C. E., & Vittorio, T. J. (2017). Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system. World Journal of Cardiology,9(2), 134. doi:10.4330/wjc.v9.i2.134
COOL DOWN : Cooling down after your workout allows for a gradual recovery of pre-exercise heart rate and blood pressure. Cooling down after your cardio workout allows for a gradual recovery of pre-exercise heart rate and blood pressure. Cooling down may be most important for competitive endurance athletes, such as marathoners because it helps regulate blood flow. Cooling down doesn’t appear to help reduce muscle stiffness and soreness after exercise,
But more research is needed. Cooling down is like warming up. You generally continue your workout session for five minutes or so but at a slower pace and reduced intensity.
Here are some examples of cool-down activities:
• To cool down after an exercise is most important.
• walk slowly for five minutes.
• All lower body movements slowly ; foam rolling for two minutes.
• Mild stretching for main muscle group three minutes three repetition.
• Breathing exercise for one minute.
Spend some time for regular aerobic workouts — plus warming up and cooling down — would be challenging. But, with a small creativity, you can probably fit it in. For example, walking to and from the gym can be your warm-up and cool-down.
After a cardio session, be it on the treadmill or cycling, taking time for a proper cooldown helps decrease and regulate blood flow, prevent injury, and improve flexibility. Take advantage of your supply, post-workout muscles and stretching
Patel, H., Alkhawam, H., Madanieh, R., Shah, N., Kosmas, C. E., ; Vittorio, T. J. (2017). Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system. World Journal of Cardiology,9(2), 134. doi:10.4330/wjc.v9.i2.134