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Studies regarding schizophrenia • Pushpanjali Vishwakarma1

Studies regarding schizophrenia
• Pushpanjali Vishwakarma1, Dr. Anshul Kumar,(2016), Emotional Intelligence and Psychopathology in Schizophrenia: A study in which it has been found that Deficits in social cognition, emotion perception and thinking have been extensively documented in schizophrenia either during the course or even in prodromal phase and are associated with poor psychosocial functioning. The present study aimed to explore the associations among emotional intelligence and positive and negative syndromes in the patients with schizophrenia. A sample of 30 male patients with schizophrenia within age range of 18-45 years was taken. Patients were selected by purposive sampling on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria from the inpatient department of a psychiatry Institute. PANSS and MSREIS-R were administered on the patients to assess positive, negative symptoms and general symptoms and different components of emotional intelligence respectively. The results revealed that two components of emotional intelligence (a) ability to manage emotions in others (b) total score of MSREIS-R were significantly associated with negative and general symptoms.
• Beatrice Frajo-Apor , Silvia Pardeller, Georg Kemmler, Anna-Sophia Welte, Alex Hofer(2016), Emotional Intelligence deficits in schizophrenia: The impact of non-social cognition: Previous studies using the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) revealed significant performance deficits across all areas of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. However, none of these studies has investigated a potential influence of non-social cognition on these findings. A study in which 56 schizophrenia outpatients and 84 control subjects were investigated using the MSCEIT and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score and education. To investigate this issue in more detail, a mediation analysis was conducted. Patients showed significantly lower EI and non-social cognition levels compared to healthy controls. After adjustment for BACS composite score and education, only the group difference in the “managing emotions” branch and thus in the “strategic” EI part of the MSCEIT remained statistically significant, whereas for all other MSCEIT branches (perceiving, using, understanding emotions) statistical significance was lost. The mediation analysis revealed that the difference between schizophrenia patients and controls regarding the MSCEIT total score was almost fully attributable to the mediating effect of non-social cognition. In this study the findings suggest that in schizophrenia patients EI is largely influenced by non-social cognitive functioning. Only the “managing emotions” branch was found to be independent of non-social cognition. Consequently,non-social cognitive performance was mainly responsible for the observed differences in EI between schizophrenia patients and controls. This has to be taken into account when interpreting MSCEIT data in this population.

• Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Hofer, Alex, 2017, Ability-based emotional intelligence in schizophrenia: As one part of social cognition, emotional intelligence is a controversially discussed construct. Although well founded critique on the conceptualization of emotional intelligence has emerged over the last years, studies about emotional intelligence – especially the ability-based approach by Mayer and Salovey – can persistently be found in schizophrenia research. Studies published between October 2015 and October 2016 were included in this review. The majority of the studies addressed the associations between ability-based emotional intelligence and other clinical or neuropsychological features, for example symptom severity or executive functioning. One study investigated the effect of oxytocin on emotional intelligence and another dealt with the question, whether emotional intelligence could be an endophenotype for schizophrenia. The reviewed literature reveals that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in ability-based emotional intelligence. In this context, non-social cognition, positive symptoms, and anomalous-self experiences seem to be of major relevance. The potential endophenotypic role of ability-based emotional intelligence in schizophrenia remains to be clarified.
• Kee, K., Horan, W. P., Salovey, P., Kern, R. S., Sergi, M. J., Fiske, A. P., Green, M. F. (2009). Emotional intelligence in schizophrenia: The current study assessed schizophrenia patients’ performance on a theoretically-based, well validated, multidimensional measure of emotional intelligence, the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. The study found that among patients, lower MSCEIT scores significantly correlated with higher negative and disorganized symptoms, as well as worse community functioning.
• Sara Dawson, Lisa Kettler, Cassandra Burton, and Cherrie Galletly,2012, People with Schizophrenia Lack Emotional Intelligence: Social cognition is a domain of cognitive function that includes the ability to understand and manage social interactions. Emotional intelligent (EI) has been identified as a component of social cognition and is defined as the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions. Neuro-cognitive impairments are known to be associated with poorer social function in people with schizophrenia, but less is known about the relationships between EI, neuro-cognition, and social function. The current study assessed EI using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) in 20 people with schizophrenia and 20 controls. The schizophrenia group had significantly lower scores on all measures of EI and demonstrated poorer neuro-cognition and social functioning than controls. The difference between schizophrenia and control groups was greatest for the Understanding Emotions Branch of the MSCEIT. The neuro-cognition score and total EI score accounted for 18.3% of the variance in social function in the control group and 9.1% of the variance in social function in the schizophrenia group. Our results suggest that a total EI score is not a useful predictor of overall social function and it may be more clinically useful to develop an individual profile of social cognitive abilities, including EI, to form a remediation program.
• E. Chapela J. Quintero I. Morales M. Félix-Alcántara J. Correas J. Gómez-Arnau, 2016, the evolution of emotional intelligence in schizophrenia: A comparative study of two groups at different times of the disorder: in which the aim was to compare emotional intelligence and other clinical and neurocognitive data in patients with schizophrenia in a different moment of evolution. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia for up to 5 years of evolution were compared to 24 patients withbschizophrenia for more than 5 years of evolution. The assessment protocol consisted of a questionnaire on socio-demographic and clinical-care data, and a battery of assessment scales, including MSCEIT for emotional intelligence. Both groups show a deterioration of emotional intelligence. Schizophrenia patients over 5 years of evolution have worse performance in emotional intelligence test that schizophrenic lower evolution. In the schizophrenia group of up to 5 years of evolution, none variables correlate with emotional intelligence. In the schizophrenia group of more than 5 years of evolution, there were moderate negative correlations with the severity of symptoms and depressive symptoms, and moderate correlation of positive sign with functionality, but none of the neurocognitive assessment scales. There are arguments for the existence of a progressive deterioration of emotional intelligence in schizophrenia. This deficit in emotional intelligence in schizophrenia appears to be present from the first years of the disease.

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• Thomas J Dinzeo, Nancy M Docherty, 2007, Normal personality characteristics in schizophrenia: A review of the literature involving the FFM: Schizophrenia is generally viewed as a disruption of normal functioning because of an underlying core illness. A number of theorists have speculated that this core illness may unilaterally disrupt normal personality functioning. However, recent data suggests that the relationship may be more complex and reciprocal than previously conceptualized. Furthermore, basic personality characteristics appear to be associated with numerous clinical phenomena. This article reviews the empirical literature pertaining to normal personality characteristics in individuals with schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that certain personality characteristics may be uniquely related to the etiology of psychosis, as well as symptom severity, occupational functioning, cigarette smoking, substance use and violent behavior, social isolation, and suicidality in patients with schizophrenia. The implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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