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Submitted as a part of MBA I year Course Requirement By R G N SRIRAM RA1652001010241 Under the guidance of Mrs

Submitted as a part of MBA I year Course Requirement By R G N SRIRAM RA1652001010241 Under the guidance of Mrs.A.CELINA (Assistant Professor) DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SRM INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHMOLOGY KATTANKULATHUR, CHENNAI DECLARATION I , R G N SRIRAM (RA1652001010241) ,hereby declare that the project report on EFFECTIVENESS OF VIRTUALIZATION TECHNIQUES IN CERT TECHNOLOGIES, KODAMBAKKAM, CHENNAI.submitted to SRM faculty of management in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration , is a record of the original research work done under the supervision and guidance of Mrs.CELINA (Assistant Professor) , faculty of management , SRM University and that it has not formed the basis for the award of any degree /associate ship/fellowship of other similar title to any candidate of any university. Signature of the student (R G N SRIRAM) DATE PLACE BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this projectreport titled EFFECTIVENESS OF VIRTUALIZATION TECHNIQUES IN CERT TECHNOLOGIES, KODAMBAKKAM, CHENNAI is the bonafide work of R G N SRIRAM (RA1652001010241) who carried out theresearch under my supervision.Certified further , that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not from part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on the earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. Submitted forthe viva-voce examination held on HOD/ MBA INTERNAL GUIDE (CELINA) DEAN/ACADEMIC INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all, I am thankful to S.R.M School of Management for allowing me to undergo project work for two months as a part of MBA curriculum in a reputed organization like EFFECTIVENESS OF VIRTUALIZATION TECHNIQUES IN CERT TECHNOLOGIES, KODAMBAKKAM, CHENNAI. to partially fulfill the management program. I even show my gratitude towards Dr. PONNIAH , Dean(Academic) and my faculty guide assistant professor Mrs.P.CELINA (School of Management) without whose support my project would not be possible to complete. I am thankful to Mr.N.LOGANATHAN, (RegionalManager) of CERT TECHNOLOGIES, KODAMBAKKAM, CHENNAI for allowing me to do the project in jio stores. I have been able to prepare my report successfully and I acknowledge a special thanks to my Parents and Friends without whose support it was impossible for me to make the project report. ABSTRACT All software companies seek out new ways to improve their productivity so as to be competitive in the market. . The demand from management to increase performance and efficiency has forced the concept and successful implementation of virtualization. The concept of virtualization helps out companies of all sizes in reducing the amount spent on the project, the work load of the operating personnel and in achieving the service level agreement. Though virtualization is becoming very popular these days, many companies have not yet showed any interest in adopting any of the virtualization techniques. One of the reasons may be because they arent aware of the actual benefits of it. Though most of the software companies have started taking initiative in adopting virtualization techniques still its not clear how far they are into it does it really help the software people to accomplish their target in time does it help them out in reducing their work load how far does it support business continuity and cost savings. This research will focus on analyzing these issues from employees point of view and also to find out the most sorted virtualization technique among the IT industry. Virtualization technology, while not new, is growing at a significant rate in its use on servers and desktop machines and long ago lost its connection to mainframe systems alone. While challenges do exist, such as the unification of terminology, the development of even more robust software solutions, and the implementation of greater device virtualization support. Virtualization is still poised to make a significant impact on the landscape of computing over the next few years The primary objective is to study the effectiveness of implementing virtualization techniques in Cert Technologies. Secondary objectives are to briefly discuss the various virtualization techniques currently in trend today, analyze what are the actual business benefits of corporations by implementing virtualization in particular and to find out the most adopted virtualization technique by the corporations. Convenience sampling method has been used in the research work. Multiple choice questions have been chosen to collect the responses from 100 employees. The data collected has been analyzed through various statistical tools like Karl Pearsons Correlation, Chi- square test and One-way Anova test. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NOCHAPTERSPAGE NOABSTRACTI1.1 INTRODUCTION1.2 COMPANY PROFILE1.3 INDUSTRY PROFILE1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM1.5 NEED FOR THE STUDY 1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1.7 OBJECTIVES1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYIIREVIEW OF LITERATUREIIIRESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 HYPOTHESIS3.2 METHODOLOGY3.3 DATA COLLECTION 3.4 DATA ANALYSISIVDATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONV5.1 FINDINGS 5.2 SUGGESTIONS 5.3 CONCLUSION ANNEXUREBIBILIOGRAPHYQUESTIONNAIRE TABLE NO. TITLEPAGE NO1GENDER2AGE GROUP3YEARS OF IT EXPERIENCE4QUALIFICATION5DESIGNATION6ADOPTION OF VIRTUALIZATION TECHNIQUE7MOST POPULAR VIRTUALIZATION PRODUCT8BENEFIT OF VIRTUALIZATION9BARRIERS FOR ADOPTING VIRTUALIZATION10DOES VIRTUALIZATION HELP IN REDUCING WORK LOAD11DOES THE VIRTUAL INFRASTRUCTURE EXPEDITE THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THE NEW SYSTEM 12IS GOING GREEN THE REASON BEHIND VIRTUALIZATION13IMPORTANT ROLE OF VIRTUALIZATION14OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES OF VIRTUALIZATION15DRIVING FORCE BEHIND IT COMPANIES TO GO FOR VIRTUALIZATION16SUPPORT THIS VIRTUALIZATION TECHNOLOGYLIST OF TABLES LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO. TITLEPAGE NO1GENDER2AGE GROUP3YEARS OF IT EXPERIENCE4QUALIFICATION5DESIGNATION6ADOPTION OF VIRTUALIZATION TECHNIQUE7MOST POPULAR VIRTUALIZATION PRODUCT8BENEFIT OF VIRTUALIZATION9BARRIERS FOR ADOPTING VIRTUALIZATION10DOES VIRTUALIZATION HELP IN REDUCING WORK LOAD11DOES THE VIRTUAL INFRASTRUCTURE EXPEDITE THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THE NEW SYSTEM 12IS GOING GREEN THE REASON BEHIND VIRTUALIZATION13IMPORTANT ROLE OF VIRTUALIZATION14OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES OF VIRTUALIZATION15DRIVING FORCE BEHIND IT COMPANIES TO GO FOR VIRTUALIZATION16SUPPORT THIS VIRTUALIZATION TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 1 EFFECTIVENESS OF VIRTUALIZATION TECHNIQUES IN CERT TECHNOLOGIES 1. INTRODUCTION The rapid growth of IT industry has resulted not only growth in the economy but within the IT industry itself. An effective IT business was the need of the hour. Virtualization was the answer for that. A one stop solution for Business effectiveness, Cost cutting, Environmental friendliness, goal achieving etc. Virtualization technology is possibly the single most important issue in IT and has started a top to bottom overhaul of the computing industry. The growing awareness of the advantages provided by virtualization technology is brought about by economic factors of scarce resources, government regulation, and more competition. Virtualization can simplify IT operations and allow IT organizations to respond faster to changing business demands. What is Virtualization Virtualization is the creation of a virtual version of a device or a resource such as servers, operating system etc where the framework divides the resources into one or more executable environment. 1.1 Importance of virtualization in business Virtualization has revolutionized the IT industry over the past few decades, Huge Servers and floor occupying computers were replaced by virtual servers. The multiple system requirements and their related cost millions to the companies, whereas now virtual machines which occupied comparatively less floor spacing helped save a huge monetary for the companies. Meeting deadlines is the performance measuring factor for a Service oriented company and IT industry was no exception. Almost all the big IT giants in INDIA are service oriented and counted upon advanced technologies such as virtualization in meeting the SLA. Virtualization covered almost all the fields necessary for an effective IT business. Business continuity was a key issue when it comes to reputation. The conventional servers and systems were increasingly becoming non reliable in this aspect as they were causing server downtimes which hampered the performance. The virtual servers on the other hand had no such problems and made the IT industry achieve Business As Usual (BAU).Over the period of time the induction of virtualization technique has greatly helped the IT professionals reduce their work load there by enabling them to do smart work rather than a tiresome one. Running simultaneous task on a single machine using virtual applications helped them distribute the work on same time. The socio-political ramifications of global warming requiring good corporate citizens to meet greenhouse gas reduction targets, creates an added incentive for virtualization. Right from kyoto protocol to copenhagen summit declaration, slowly but surely the Industrial world had shift focus into a promising a greener environment. Virtualization has won these industries reputation and awards for being environmental friendly. The amount of energy that has been saved due to virtual servers and their less maintenance cost is enormous. 1.2 Reasons That Drives Virtualization 1. Underutilized hardware Today, many data centers have machines running at only 10 or 15 percent of total processing capacity. In other words, 85 or 90 percent of the machines power is unused. However, a lightly loaded machine still takes up room and draws electricity, so the operating cost of todays underutilized machine can be nearly the same as if it were running flat-out. It doesnt take a rocket scientist to recognize that this situation is a waste of computing resources. With the steady improvement in performance characteristics of computer hardware, next years machine will have twice as much spare capacity as this years (and so on, for the foreseeable future). Obviously, there ought to be a better way to match computing capacity with load. And thats what virtualization does by enabling a single piece of hardware to seamlessly support multiple systems. By applying virtualization, organizations can raise their hardware utilization rates dramatically, thereby making much more efficient use of corporate capital. So, the first trend that is causing virtualization to be a mainstream concern is the unending growth of computing power brought to us by the friendly folks of the chip industry. 2. Data centers run out of space The business world has undergone an enormous transformation over the past 20 years. Business process after business process has been captured in software and automated, moving from paper to electrons. The rise of the Internet has exponentially increased this transformation. Companies want to communicate with customers and partners in real-time, using the worldwide connectivity of the Internet. Naturally, this has accelerated the move to computerized business processes. The net effect of all this is that huge numbers of servers have been put into use over the past decade, which is causing a real estate problem for companies Theyre running out of space in their data centers. And, by the way, that explosion of data calls for new methods of data storage. These methods go by the common moniker of storage virtualization, which, as you may guess, means making it possible for storage to be handled independently of any particular piece of hardware. Virtualization, by offering the ability to host multiple guest systems on a single physical server, allows organizations to reclaim data center territory, thereby avoiding the expense of building out more data center space. This is an enormous benefit of virtualization, because data centers can cost in the tens of millions of dollars to construct. 3. Green initiatives demand better energy efficiency Power costs used to rank somewhere below what brand of soda to keep in the vending machines in most companys strategic thinking. Companies could assume that electrical power was cheap and endlessly available. The assumption regarding availability of reliable power was challenged during the California power scares of a few years ago. Although later evidence caused re-evaluation about whether there was a true power shortage, the events caused companies to consider whether they should look for ways to be less power dependent. Furthermore, the impact of the green revolution has meant that companies are increasingly looking for ways to reduce the amount of energy they consume and one of the places they look first is their data center. To show the level of concern about the amount of energy being consumed in data centers, consider these facts A study commissioned by AMD and performed by a scientist from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory showed that the amount of energy consumed by data centers in the U.S. doubled between 2000 and 2005. Furthermore, energy consumption is expected to increase another 40 percent by the end of the decade. Current energy consumption by data center servers and associated cooling costs represents 1.2 percent of the total energy consumed in the U.S. Based, in part, on the results of this study, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has convened a working group to establish standards for server energy consumption and plans to establish a new Energy Star rating for energy efficient servers. 4. System administration costs mount Computers dont operate all on their own. Every server requires care and feeding by system administrators. Common system administration tasks include monitoring hardware status replacing defective hardware components installing operating system (OS) and application software installing OS and application patches monitoring critical server resources like memory and disk use and backing up server data to other storage mediums for security and redundancy purposes. As you can imagine, these tasks are pretty labor intensive. System administrators the people who keep the machines humming dont come cheap. And, unlike programmers, system administrators are usually co-located with the servers, because they need to access the physical hardware. As part of an effort to rein in operations cost increases, virtualization offers the opportunity to reduce overall system. Administration costs by reducing the overall number of machines that need to be taken care of. Although many of the tasks associated with system administration (OS and application patching, doing backups) continue even in a virtualized environment, some of them disappear as physical servers are migrated to virtual instances. Overall, virtualization can reduce system administration requirements drastically, making virtualization an excellent option to address the increasing cost of operations personnel. 5. Need for Advancement was inevitable As more and more the world become a global village, connecting all corners of the world was required. Even the business of the IT industry demanded the same, multi site projects were the crown jewel of IT industry as they had clients from all over the world. They had to closely work with their ON-SITE co coordinators and the servers over there. Had if not for the Network virtualization or the VDI connecting remote servers wouldnt have been possible. 6. To stay ahead in the competition IT industry has grown manifolds in number and wining a project from a client has become a hardship task. Clients for many reasons such as reliability, performance, monetary etc filter up their vendors and the company which satisfy the above said factors end up with winning the project. One such key factor is DELIVERY and PERFORMANCE EXCELLENCE which is directly propositional to the work efficiency of the companies associates. The associates however depend on the Tools Technology they employ in their projects, which in our case is the virtualization techniques. The employment of virtualization technologies has greatly helped company achieve the business goals, enabling them to stay ahead in the race to the first spot. 1.3 Role of Virtualization Recent events like the cost of electricity, cooling, and the cost of running a datacenter have led to skyrocketing operational costs. Luckily, with the release of updated operating systems that can manage the running of multiple applications on the same server, and the aging of virtualization technology, we have a series of solutions to help battle server sprawl and help us reclaim the datacenter. Reduces IT complexity Application and their operations system are encapsulated in virtual machines that are defined in software, making them easy to provision and manage. Enables standardization Since applications are decoupled from hardware, the data center may converge on a narrower range of hardware devices. Improves agility Applications and virtual machines can be copied and moved in real time and in response to changing business conditions Improves cost-efficiency Virtual machines can easily be moved to consume spare capacity wherever it exist, thus generating more work from less hardware. Facilitates automation Virtual infrastructure is easily provisioned and orchestrated by software-driven processes, especially when the underlying hardware is standardized. 1.4 Operational Challenges of Virtualization While virtualization has proven to be a powerfully flexible technology for service adaptation, it introduces some new operational challenges and exacerbates many others. 1. Capacity management is a mystery. 3. The proper skills for the future are difficult to attain and retain. Virtualization marks a notable departure from prior operational models. Existing staff must be trained in the new technology and its complexity mandates automation. As functions are automated, reliance on skilled staff decreases. A potentially dangerous skills gap is emerging. Another skills concern is how virtualization fits into an overall service management movement. Such expertise is currently in short supply. 4. Surprisingly, the risk of making errors is viewed as little concern. One existing concern regarding virtualization is the notable risk of making errors because of its complexity. This study suggests otherwise. This can be explained by the fact that production penetration is still in its early stages and automation technologies are becoming more prominent and mature to assist with the complexity. This indicates that decision-makers are more pragmatic about the operational aspect of virtualization as compared with prior introductions of new technologies. There is also a growing awareness to integrate physical with heterogeneous virtual management environments using consolidated solutions. 5. Operational responsibility for virtual servers varies by geography. It is most effective and efficient to consolidate virtual server operations with other domains, away from subject matter experts (SMEs). Examination of the aggregate data from this study suggests only a mild shift from virtual server SMEs, while most have already consolidated their operations. Virtualization a global overview Many companies begin their virtualization efforts with server consolidation to reduce hardware power, cooling, and facilities expenses. Now, organizations are continuing virtualization with server consolidation and extend its use to the desktop, storage and networking areas, to provide more flexible and economical business continuity, security, and application of service level agreements. There has been increasing dilemma in the IT world over the Virtualization of the enterprise desktop on which client to go for thick clients or thin clients. Thick clients includes fully loaded personal computers (PCs) and laptops, provide employees with a rich set of applications, but applications distributed across thousands of PCs that must be individually provisioned, updated, patched and secured are a challenge to manage. Thin clients are cheaper, more secure, and more cost-effective to manage, but traditionally have not been able to deliver the richness, flexibility, or compatibility of thick clients. Most businesses provide thin clients only for employees, such as call centre staff, who can be productive in this more restrictive environment. New virtualization-based approaches delivers rich, personalized virtual desktops to any device, thick or thin, but simplify management by hosting virtual desktops in the data centre. Virtualization is the essential for efficient, manageable desktops in an increasingly mobile world. In addition, better remote display protocols and use of the local machines computing resources create a better user experience, and the combination of online and offline modes will let employees work while travelling or when without higher-speed network access. Virtualization-aware networking, many of the major network and virtualization software vendors around the world are working together to deliver joint data centre solutions that improve the scalability and operational control of virtual environments. Distributed virtual software switches will be an integrated option in this sort of infrastructure. In parallel, companies are collaborating to integrate virtual desktop solutions with application delivery networking solutions to improve the performance of virtual desktops delivered across wide-area networks (WANs). Networking vendors are now optimizing for virtualization network traffic, remote display protocols are becoming more effective, and networking management tools will monitor and manage at the virtual machine-level. Storage virtualization is critical to the virtual data centre advances in virtual storage will dramatically increase the flexibility, speed, resiliency and efficiency of virtual data centers. New virtual storage solutions automate handoffs between the virtualization platform and the storage infrastructure, simplify storage operations and maximize efficient use of storage infrastructure. We expect solutions that offer native array support for common storage operations on virtual machines such as replication and migration, thin provisioning and de-duplication capabilities to optimize storage usage – especially important for desktops and virtual storage arrays solutions. High-end application virtualization A combination of hardware and software advances will remove performance concerns regarding the highest-end, most mission-critical, applications in virtual environments. Virtualization through the eyes of India IT Co Virtualization has clearly emerged as one of the hottest technology with wide reaching implications in the global as well as Indian market scenario. Businesses across IT/ITeS were the few early adopters of consolidation and virtualization in India. The success received by this technology has now triggered the momentum of its adoption in industries like BFSI and manufacturing also. Apart from acknowledging the primary advantages of virtualization technology (like improved management capabilities and better IT infrastructure utilization), enterprises in India are fast picking up on its additional benefits like savings in power consumption and improved investment in physical office space. Globally, while server virtualization has established itself storage virtualization is fast emerging as a key technology trend in the Indian environment as well. The Indian IT Cos major area of implementing virtualization are power reduction, reduced physical space, quick ROI, simplified backup and recovery, business continuity built-into model and dynamic provisioning. Current economic situation, where every organization looks for cost reduction, virtualization helps achieve that. Early on, IT organizations were focusing on non-business critical production workloads, to harvest the low-hanging fruit while learning how to efficiently manage virtual and physical servers across their infrastructure. As their processes become more mature and the expertise improves, a more proactive strategy that includes business-critical applications makes sense for consolidation. Here, the benefits in disaster recovery and business continuity become more critical than simply cost savings. Finally, as the IT organization becomes adept at managing critical and tactical workloads across a rationalized server infrastructure, it uses virtualization to dynamically assign resources to improve flexibility and scale – increasing the strategic value to the organization. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2.1 Introduction Virtualization is quickly becoming an important technology across all parts of the IT environment. The technology is rapidly being incorporated in storage, networks, and client environments. By far the most visible adoption of virtualization technology is happening in servers from the largest Unix server to the smallest volume system. Virtualization software breaks the link between a given software-driven application or service and the hardware resources of the underlying system and encapsulates and isolates that stack or service. It is being used as a tool for consolidation and more recently as a means to bring high availability, disaster recovery, and resource balancing to a larger part of organizations IT infrastructures. Its been said that everything old is new again, and that saying is particularly appropriate for system virtualization. Virtualization and system partitioning have existed for decades aboard mainframe and UNIX based systems. Whats new is the concept of bringing this virtualization technology to small and medium-scale x86- based servers. 2. 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.2.1 Background (LAD Enterprises Inc, August 2008) Though computer technology is moving ahead in a rapid pace with more sleeker, efficient and powerful machines, their utility is not fully optimized. Obviously the computers of today are much far powerful than the computers of two to three decades ago, but the way they are used recalls the early ways of computing. Here comes the history of virtualization to explain how it all started and some of the ways that the world of virtualization has evolved. 2.2.2.1Mainframes Anyone who has been around computers for a while will quickly recognize that the concept of running a clients session on a server and then displaying the results on the client machine describes the way mainframes work. Figure2.1 Figure 2.1 shows how virtualization is similar to that of how mainframe works. While modern mainframes are certainly speedy things, they are more notable for their redundant internal engineering, ensuring a high level of redundancy, security, and backward compatibility with legacy applications. Its not uncommon for a mainframe to run constantly for years without incident, even while upgrades and repairs are performed. Software upgrades are non disruptive because one system can take over anothers application while it is being improved. 2.2.2.2 The Evolution of the Mainframe Between the late 1950s and 1970s, several manufacturers built the first mainframes. The group of manufacturers was known at one Point as IBM and the Seven Dwarfs. Those companies were IBM, Burroughs, UNIVAC, NCR, Control Data, Honeywell, General Electric, and RCA. IBM was the dominant leader in the field with its 700/7000 series, and later its 360, which continued to evolve into the current zSeries/z9 mainframes. In the 1960s, mainframes tended not to have an interactive interface. They accepted punch cards, paper tape, and magnetic tape, operating solely in batch mode to support office functions, like customer billing. By the 1970s, mainframes had acquired interactive user interfaces and were used as timesharing computers, able to support thousands of users simultaneously. This was done mostly via a terminal interface. These days, most mainframes have phased out terminal access and end users are able to access the mainframe using a web user interface. In the early 1980s, less demand and competition led to a lot of companies pulling out of the mainframes arena. Also, companies realized the benefits of client-server solutions, sales fell while server sales boomed. By the early 1990s, it seemed that the mainframe was going the way of the dinosaur, but in the late 1990, organizations found new uses for their existing mainframes. The growth of e-business increased the number of back-end transactions Processed by the mainframe, as well as the size and throughput of databases. 2.2.2.3Operation Mainframes are able to host multiple operating systems, and operate not as a single computer But as a number of virtual machines, which are called partitions in the mainframe world. In this capacity, a mainframe can replace hundreds of smaller servers. While mainframes were the first to function this way, were now seeing regular servers used in this way. Figure 2.2 shows how a virtual server can house multiple operating systems like mainframes. Figure 2.2 Mainframes are designed to handle very high-volume input and output. Since the mid-1960s, mainframe designs have incorporated subsidiary computers called channels or peripheral processors. These computers manage the JO devices, leaving the CPU open to manage high-speed memory. When compared to a PC, mainframes have thousands of times as much storage. NOTE It is not uncommon for mainframes to house enormously large databases. Gigabyte- and terabyte-sized files are common. As bulletproof as they sound, mainframes do have disadvantages. Their primary issue is that they are centralized. This isnt a problem when everything is housed under one roof, but as the organization becomes more geographically dispersed, its harder to justify the cost of a mainframe at several locations. 2.2.2.4 Virtual Machines IBM developed the virtual machine concept as a way of time-sharing very expensive mainframe computers. Typically an organization could only afford one mainframe, and this single mainframe had to be used for development of applications and deployment of applications. Developing an application on the same system you intend to deploy on while other applications are in production on that system was generally considered bad practice. This is still true today. Development activities may require reboots or cause instabilities in the system, and it is undesirable to have these activities interfere with production applications. The virtual machine concept allows the same computer to be shared as if it were several. IBM defined the virtual machine as a fully protected and isolated copy of the underlying physical machines hardware. IBM designed their virtual machine systems with the goal that applications, even operating systems, run in the virtual machine would behave exactly as they would on the original hardware. What is a virtual machine Virtualization technologies provide a way to separate the physical hardware (computer) and software (OS and applications) by emulating hardware using software. How does it work Essentially, software (called a hypervisor) is loaded on a computer. That software in-turn loads files that define a new virtual computer called a Virtual Machine (VM). Because a virtual computer is in reality a data file, not a physical computer, it can be copied, moved to another computer etc, just like any other file. Typically, virtual computers use two file structures one defines the hardware, the other the hard disk. Additionally some hypervisor technologies can be configured to cache changes to the virtual hardware or the virtual hard disk for writing (called committing) at a later time. This provides the ability to discard changes to the operating system, permitting boot from a known and controlled valid state. 2.2.3 What Does Virtualization Deliver This is cited in virtualization for dummies find out how virtualization can benefit your organization, 2007. Among other things, virtualization allows you to Consolidate workloads to reduce hardware, power, and space requirements. Run multiple operating systems simultaneously as an enterprise upgrade path, or to leverage the advantages of can imagine. Run legacy software on newer, more reliable, and more power-efficient hardware. Dynamically migrate workloads to provide fault tolerance. Provide redundancy to support disaster recovery. 2.2.4 Business Benefits of Virtualization (ISACA, 2010) There are many benefits of implementing virtualization within enterprise IT. Among them are Maximize computer resources usageVirtualization gives the freedom to run a wide variety of business applications without the costs and complexity often associated with managing multiple physical servers. It can help eliminate underutilized servers because it is designed to pool resources and optimize their use across multiple application environments and operating systems. Cost reductionby consolidating many instances of (virtualized) servers onto a physical one, enterprises lower their Hardware expenditures. In addition to lower capital expenditures, virtualized environments enable enterprises to save on maintenance and energy, often resulting in a reduced total cost of ownership (TCO). AutomationTechnology allows some virtualized environments to be provisioned as needed and on the fly, thus facilitating automation of business processes and eliminating the need to continually resource and manage portions of the technical environment that support sporadic business needs. Some virtualization technology facilitates the automatic allocation of a process for its optimal performance within a pool of virtualized environments. ResponsivenessSince the virtual environment has the ability to provision itself to get the best out of available resources, response times are faster and downtimes can be reduced to near zero, improving agility and performance. DecouplingProcesses that once needed to exist within the same physical machine can now be easily separated while still maintaining the robustness and security required. The different virtualized worlds (network, operating system OS, database, application, etc.) can be decoupled (even distributed in different geographic locations) without threatening integrity within the process. FlexibilityThe relatively easy creation or preparation of the right environment for the right application enables enterprises to provide flexibility to the infrastructure, not only in the test or preproduction phases but also in the production area. When a new procedure or technical/business requirement arises, virtualizations ability to enable rapid creation of the environment allows the business to test the environment without having to wait for the regular provisioning process to be executed and delivered. AgilityAgility facilitates quick adaptation to business needs, such as when orders peak and additional computing power is needed. An enterprise may even choose to over commit the resources of a physical machine since virtualization facilitates rapid movement of the different resources that live in one physical machine to other virtual machines. In this way, virtualization supports alignment with business needs. Workload balancingdeploying several virtual environments guarantees the good practices of high availability, redundancy and failover since workloads can go where they are more efficient. Thus, virtualization focuses not only on effectiveness (doing the right things) but also efficiency (doing things in a faster, cheaper and more reliable way). SimplificationVirtual IT is still IT, so some of the typical IT difficulties exist even within a virtual environment. However, reducing the number of physical servers significantly reduces the probability of failure and the cost of management and results in simplificationone of the promises of virtualization. Space utilizationServer consolidation saves space in the data center and facilitates scalability since many servers exist within one server. SustainabilityVirtualized environments use less environmental resources. Energy consumption in data centers is often wasted on machines that are consistently underutilized. Since virtualization allows for many virtual machines to run on one physical machine, less energy is needed to power and cool devices. Here I would like to discuss about the various virtualization techniques currently adopted by the corporations. This is retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2.2.5 Types of Virtualization Generally speaking, virtualization falls into the following categories Software virtualization Operating system virtualization Application virtualization Memory virtualization Memory virtualization Virtual Memory Data virtualization Data virtualization Database virtualization Storage virtualization Network virtualization Desktop virtualization Network virtualization Hardware virtualization Server virtualization 1. Software virtualization a) Operating System Virtualization The most prevalent form of virtualization today, virtual operating systems (or virtual machines) is quickly becoming a core component of the IT infrastructure. Generally, this is the form of virtualization end-users are most familiar with. Virtual machines are typically full implementations of standard operating systems, such as Windows Vista or RedHat Enterprise Linux, running simultaneously on the same physical hardware. Virtual Machine Managers (VMMs) manage each virtual machine individually each OS instance is unaware that 1) its virtual and 2) that other virtual operating systems are (or may be) running at the same time. Companies like Microsoft, VMware, Intel, and AMD are leading the way in breaking the physical relationship between an operating system and its native hardware, extending this paradigm into the data center. As the primary driving force, data center consolidation is bringing the benefits of virtual machines to the mainstream market, allowing enterprises to reduce the number of physical machines in their data centers without reducing the number of underlying applications. This trend ultimately saves enterprises money on hardware, co-location fees, rack space, power, cable management, and more. b) Application Virtualization This is a method of providing a specific application to an end user that is virtualized from the desktop OS and which is not installed in a traditional manner. An application can be installed and/or executed locally within a container that controls how it interacts with other system and application components. Or an application can be isolated in its own virtualized sandbox to prevent interaction with other system and application components. Or applications can be streamed across a network. Or applications can be delivered across the network to a web browser with most processing executed on a centralized web server. This latter method will support almost any user, with no installation requirement, on almost any platform, in any location, but it only supports a limited set of applications. 2. Memory Virtualization Virtual memory is a HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_managementmemory management technique developed for HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_multitasking o Computer multitaskingmultitasking HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernel_28computing29 o Kernel (computing)kernels. This technique HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardware_virtualization o Hardware virtualizationvirtualizes a HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_architecturecomputer architectures various HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_data_storage o Computer data storagehardware memory devices (such as HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random-access_memory o Random-access memoryRAM modules and HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disk_storagedisk storage drives), allowing a HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_software o Application softwareprogram to be designed as though There is only one hardware memory device and this virtual device acts like a RAM module. The program has, by default, sole access to this virtual RAM module as the basis for a contiguous working memory (an HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Address_spaceaddress space). Systems that employ virtual memory use hardware memory more efficiently than systems without virtual memory.HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WikipediaCitation_needed o WikipediaCitation neededcitation needed make the programming of applications easier by 1. Hiding HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fragmentation_28computer29 o Fragmentation (computer)fragmentation. 2. Delegating to the kernel the burden of managing the HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_data_storage l Hierarchy_of_storage o Computer data storagememory hierarchy there is no need for the program to handle HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overlay_28programming29 o Overlay (programming)overlays explicitly. 3. Obviating the need HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relocation_28computer_science29 o Relocation (computer science)to relocate program code or to access memory with HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Addressing_mode l PC-relative o Addressing moderelative addressing. HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory_virtualizationMemory virtualization is a generalization of the concept of virtual memory. Memory Virtualization Memory virtualization decouples volatile HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random_access_memory o Random access memoryrandom access memory (RAM) resources from individual systems in the data center, and then aggregates those resources into a virtualized memory pool available to any computer in the cluster. The memory pool is accessed by the operating system or applications running on top of the operating system. The distributed memory pool can then be utilized as a high-speed cache, a messaging layer, or a large, shared memory resource for a CPU or a GPU application. Benefits Improves memory utilization via the sharing of scarce resources Increases efficiency and decreases run time for data intensive and I/O bound applications Allows applications on multiple servers to share data without replication, decreasing total memory needs Lowers latency and provides faster access than other solutions such as SSD, SAN or NAS 3. Data Virtualization Data virtualization is the process of abstraction of data contained within a variety of information sources such as relational databases, data sources exposed through web services, XML repositories and others so that they may be accessed without regard to their physical storage or heterogeneous Structure. This concept and software is commonly used within data integration, master data management, cloud computing, business intelligence systems and enterprise search. 4. Storage Virtualization This is where the resources of many different network storage devices such as hard drives are pooled so that it looks like they are all one big vat of storage. This is then managed by a central system that makes it all look much simpler to the network administrators. This is also a great way to keep an eye on resources in a business, as you can then see exactly how much you have left at a given time. It gives the administrator much less hassle when it comes to backups etc.Virtualization of storage helps achieve location independence by abstracting the physical location of the data. The virtualization system presents to the user a logical space for data storage and itself handles the process of mapping it to the actual physical location. There are three basic approaches to data storage A. Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) This is the traditional method used in data storage where hard drives are attached to a physical server. Because this method is easy to use but hard to manage, virtualization technology is causing organization to have a second thought with regard to its viability. B. Network-Attached Storage (NAS) This is a machine that resides on your network and provides data storage to other machines. It can be thought of as the first step toward storage virtualization. This approach provides a single source of data, facilitating data backup. By collecting your data in one place, it also avoids the problem of multiple servers needing to access data located on another server. C. Storage Area Network (SAN) This ultra-sophisticated approach deploys specialized hardware and software to transform mere disk drives into a data storage solution that transfers data on its own high-performance network. Companies shift over to a SAN when they recognize that corporate data is a key resource that must be available 24/7 and needs to be conveniently managed. The price tag for this approach is very high indeed. 5. Network Virtualization a) Client (or Desktop) Virtualization This type of virtualization technology has to do with a client (a workstation desktop or laptop pc – an end user machine). These can be very difficult for a systems administrator to manage. Whereas any machine in the companys data center has very strict procedures regarding what gets loaded on them and when they get updated with new software releases, it is often a quite different scene when it comes to the end-user machine. Even if there are supposed to be procedures followed for the above actions on an end-user machine, those procedures are often not followed or paid much heed. A CD or DVD slot makes it easy for non-approved software to be installed that can create problems on that machine. Quite aside from that, end-user machines are more susceptible to malware in numerous ways – via e-mail viruses, unwitting spyware downloads, etc. Last but not least, most end-user machines run on Microsoft Windows which is well known for attracting attacks from hackers and cybercriminals. IT has to not only deal with all those problems but also attend to the normal problems inherent in client machines keeping approved software up-to-date, patching the OS, keeping virus definitions current, all of these factors make an IT guys job quite challenging. So client virtualization, with the hope of easier client machine management and security, attracts the interest of IT.Because there is no single solution for end-user computing, there is more than one method or model that can be employed A. Remote (Server-Hosted) Desktop Virtualization In this model, the operating environment is hosted on a server in the data center and accessed by the end user across a network. B. Local (Client-Hosted) Desktop Virtualization In this model, the operating environment runs locally on the users physical pc hardware and involves multiple flavors of client-side virtualization techniques that can monitor and protect the execution of the end user system. b) Network Virtualization Network Virtualization is when all of the separate resources of a network are combined, allowing the network administrator to share them out amongst the users of the network. This is done by splitting the resources bandwidth into channels and allowing the administrator to assign these resources as and when required. This allows each user to access all of the network resources from their computer. This can be files and folders on the computer, printers or hard drives etc. This streamlined approach makes the life of the network administrator much easier, and it makes the system seem much less complicated to the human eye than it really is. 6. Hardware Virtualization Hardware virtualization is very similar in concept to OS/Platform virtualization, and to some degree is required for OS virtualization to occur. Hardware virtualization breaks up pieces and locations of physical hardware into independent segments and manages those segments as separate, individual components. Although they fall into different classifications, both symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing are examples of hardware virtualization. In both instances, the process requesting CPU time isnt aware which processor its going to run on it just requests CPU time from the OS scheduler and the scheduler takes the responsibility of allocating processor time. As far as the process is concerned, it could be spread across any number of CPUs and any part of RAM, so long as its able to run unaffected. Another example of hardware virtualization is slicing carving out precise portions of the system to run in a walled garden, such as allocating a fixed 25 of CPU resources to bulk encryption. If there are no processes that need to crunch numbers on the CPU for block encryption, then that 25 of the CPU will go unutilized. If too many processes need mathematical computations at once and require more than 25, they will be Queued and run as a FIFO buffer because the CPU isnt allowed to give out more than 25 of its resources to encryption. This type of hardware virtualization is sometimes referred to as pre-allocation. Asymmetric multiprocessing is a form of pre-allocation virtualization where certain tasks are only run on certain CPUs. In contrast, symmetric multiprocessing is a form of dynamic allocation, where CPUs are interchangeable and used as needed by any part of the management system. Each classification of hardware virtualization is unique and has value, depending on the implementation. Pre-allocation virtualization is perfect for very specific hardware tasks, such as offloading functions to a highly optimized, single-purpose chip. However, pre-allocation of commodity hardware can cause artificial resource shortages if the allocated chunk is underutilized. Dynamic allocation virtualization is a more standard approach and typically offers greater benefit when compared to pre-allocation. For true virtual service provisioning, dynamic resource allocation is important because it allows complete hardware management and control for resources as needed virtual resources can be allocated as long as hardware resources are still available. The downside to dynamic allocation implementations is that they typically do not provide full control over the dynamicity, leading to processes which can consume all available resources. 2.2.6 Server Virtualization (DB2 Virtualization, IBM, September 2009) This is the main area of virtualization, whereby a number of virtual machinesare created on one server meaning that multiple tasks can then be assigned to the one server, saving on processing power, cost and space. This means that any network tasks that are happening on the server still appear to be on a separate space, so that any errors can be diagnosed and fixed quickly. However, server virtualization is implemented using different techniques _ Full virtualization _ Para virtualization _ Hardware-assisted virtualization _ Operating system (OS)-based virtualization The first three types of virtualization are considered to be types of machine-based virtualization, which is different from OS-based virtualization, which is based on where the virtual machine monitor is located. But all types of server virtualizations use virtual servers and virtual machine monitors. 2.2.6.1 Virtual server The virtual server is also commonly referred to as the virtual machine (VM). The virtual machine is the working environment created from virtual resources. These virtual resources include CPU, RAM, hard drives, and other I/O interfaces. The encapsulation of the virtual resources creates an isolated but compatible environment similar to the underlying hardware. This allows the VM to run its own operating system, which is referred to as the guest OS. So the VM seems like a physical server to the system users. 2.2.6.2 Virtual machine monitor The governing of the virtual machines on the physical server is handled by the VMM. The virtual machine monitor is also known as the hypervisor. The hypervisor controls the resources between the physical hardware and the virtual machine. With this control the hypervisor also manages each guest OS used by each virtual machine. This allows each guest OS to run concurrently in isolation from each other. Depending on the hypervisor implementation, the guest OS can be different among the virtual machines. The hypervisor is an additional layer within the software stack, which is different when comparing a virtualized server to a non-virtualized server. In a non-virtualized server there is only the hardware, operating system, and software application. Figure 2.3 NON VIRTUALIZED SYSTEM Figure 2.3 shows the framework of a non virtualized system. The hypervisors used in server virtualization are classified as either type 1 or type 2 Type 1 This type of hypervisor runs directly on top of the host hardware. This provides a higher level of virtualization and security since the hypervisor controls the hardware. Using this model, the guest OS is on the second layer above the hardware. This hypervisor is also referred to as bare-metal or native. Figure 2.4 shows the framework of type I virtualized server. Figure 2.4 Virtualized Servers Type 2 This type of hypervisor runs on top of an existing operating system. This provides wider support of hardware resources since the operating system manages the resources. Using this model, the guest OS is on the third layer above the hardware. This type of hypervisor is also referred to host. Figure 2.5shows the framework of type II virtualized servers. Figure 2.5 Type II Virtualized Server 2.2.6.3 Machine-based virtualization There are three types of machine-based virtualization _ Full virtualization _ Paravirtualization _ Hardware-assisted virtualization With machine-based virtualization, the hypervisor is placed directly on top of the hardware. This allows the hypervisor to control the hardware while managing the virtual machines. Depending on the hypervisor, different operating systems or the same operating system at different levels can be used within each separate virtual machine. But the key difference between these three types of virtualizations is how privileged-mode or kernel-mode calls are handled and executed on the CPU, whereas user-mode calls always run directly against the CPU. Full virtualization In a full virtualized environment the hypervisor must intercept privileged instructions from the guest OS. The privileged instruction then must be simulated by the hypervisor to fulfill the request on the hardware. This is illustrated in the Figure 2.6.Using this implementation, the guest OS does not need to be modified. However, trapping instructions inside the hypervisor takes longer to execute than if running the same privileged instructions directly on the CPU. Therefore, full virtualization causes performance to greatly decrease in comparison to physical implementations. Figure 2.6 Full virtualization Para virtualization Unlike full virtualization, Para virtualization allows privileged instructions to be run directly against the CPU. This means that the hypervisor does not need to intercept the privileged instruction for simulation. . However, this can only be achieved if the guest OS is modified to cooperate with the hypervisor. The guest operating system must be ported with the hypervisor API, which might not be adapted by all operating systems. This is illustrated in the figure 2.7. Figure 2.7 Paravirtualization Hardware-assisted virtualization The benefits of full virtualization and paravirtualization are combined with hardware-assisted virtualization. This is where the guest OS can directly execute privileged instructions on the CPU without being modified. However, the CPU must be able to handle the privileged-mode or kernel-mode calls by using virtualization extensions. This allows the trapping instruction to be handled at the hardware layer rather than at the software layer. This is illustrated in the figure 2.8. Figure 2.8 Hardware assisted virtualization 2.2.6.4 Usage Scenarios of server virtualizationServer virtualization can be used to achieve several benefits within an organization Server consolidation Business continuity and disaster recovery Development and test systems Dynamic Data Center Server Consolidation Server consolidation is the act of reducing the number of physical servers and minimizing datacenter floor space in an enterprise. Through server consolidation an IT organization can not only reduce the number of physical servers in an environment, but they can also significantly decrease the amount of money that is spent on operational costs. By reducing the physical server count, consolidation will decrease the amount of Power required to run servers, which will directly impact the amount of cooling that is required to keep servers running at an optimal temperature and reduce the amount of expensive datacenter floor space required to run business systems. Figure 2.9 illustrates how the servers are consolidated from four servers to one. Figure 2.9 Server Consolidation Consolidation can also happen at a remote location. For example, a remote site may have four physical servers that are underutilized, but have to be on a separate server due to application compatibility issues those physical servers could be migrated to a single server running the Hyper-V role as isolated virtual machines, thus saving money in power, cooling, licensing, and maintenance. This would also allow for the provisioni nn of an additional virtual server if the need arises at the remote location versus having to purchase and ship a new server. Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery The need to be able to recover from a catastrophic event as fast as possible to get back to being at a functional business state can be a costly and extremely tough situation for a company to address. Using Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V, you can pre-stage systems at a warm site, use Windows Server Failover Clustering or if your environment is already virtualized, and youre using the right third-party solutions, that entire environment can be replicated to another datacenter or backed up and restored at a different location. Using virtualization for business continuity and disaster recovery can significantly reduce the cost of a project as well as speed up your disaster recovery testing. Development and Test Systems Development and test systems are a great place to start your virtualization journey. With the speed at which business moves today, IT organizations need to quickly provision development and test systems to meet business demand to develop systems faster. By creating templates and having a virtual infrastructure in place, you can provision a development or test system in a matter of minutes versus the weeks it takes to order new hardware and install that hardware in your datacenter. With the snapshot functionality that is available in Hyper-V, a developer can create a baseline configuration, take a snapshot of that configuration, and implement the new code. If there is a problem with the code, the developer or tester can revert to the snapshot and be ready to try again. The traditional model of restoring from backup or rebuilding a machine is time int teniiee for the administrators, as well as for the developers and testers who have to rec ooniiurre each machine. If a project needs another development or test system, a person with appropriate rights can use the self-service portal of System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 to provision a new system without having to use a systems administrator to build that machine. Dynamic Data Center For years youve been hearing about the Dynamic Data Center. With the release of Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V, were one step closer to that reality. A Dynamic Data Center is a theory that systems will seamlessly be able to be provisioned, deprovisioned, and adiust to work load demands automatically. With Hyper-V and System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008, you can configure intelligent Placement to place your virtual machine on the host that is most optimized for your guests workload. RESEARCH DESIGN 2.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM All software companies seek out new ways to improve their productivity so as to be competitive in the market. . The demand from management to increase performance and efficiency has forced the concept and successful implementation of virtualization. The concept of virtualization helps out companies of all sizes in reducing the amount spent on the project, the work load of the operating personnel and in achieving the service level agreement. Though virtualization is becoming very popular these days, many companies have not yet showed any interest in adopting any of the virtualization techniques. One of the reasons may be because they arent aware of the actual benefits of it. NEED FOR THE STUDY Though most of the software companies have started taking initiative in adopting virtualization techniques still its not clear how far they are into it does it really help the software people to accomplish their target in time does it help them out in reducing their work load how far does it support business continuity and cost savings. This research will focus on analyzing these issues from employees point of view and also to find out the most sorted virtualization technique among the IT industry. 2.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY Virtualization technology, while not new, is growing at a significant rate in its use on servers and desktop machines and long ago lost its connection to mainframe systems alone. While challenges do exist, such as the unification of terminology, the development of even more robust software solutions, and the implementation of greater device virtualization support. Virtualization is still poised to make a significant impact on the landscape of computing over the next few years 2.5 OBJECTIVES PRIMARY OBJECTIVE To study the effectiveness of implementing virtualization techniques in Cert Technologies. SECONDARY OBJETIVE To briefly discuss the various virtualization techniques currently in trend today To analyze what are the actual business benefits of corporations by implementing virtualization in particular. To find out the most adopted virtualization technique by the corporations. 2.6 Hypothesis Adoption of virtualization has a positive impact on cost savings. Adoption of virtualization has a positive impact on service level agreement. Adoption of virtualization has a positive impact on business continuity.. 2.8 Methodology Both Primary and secondary data were used for the research. 2.8.1 Data Collection Questionnaire was used as my primary data collection tool. The sample for the survey was done through convenient sampling. 200 questionnaires were sent to some of the IT professionals whom I know in some of the software companies. The survey participants include software engineers, project managers and business analysts. The questions for the survey was about the various business benefits of virtualization. 2.8.2 Data Analysis Statistical methods such as t test and correlation are used to analyze the collected data. These methods were executed with the help of statistical tools such as excel sheet and spss. The results of these statistical methods are discussed in inferential characteristics The characteristics of the surveyed sample are described in sample characteristics and certain findings related to virtual concepts are described in descriptive statistics. 2.9 Operational Definitions of Concepts There are two main concepts involved in this. They are business benefits and virtualization. Concepts Indicators Variable 1 .business benefits cost savings 1)No of servers 2)Operating personnel 3)Operating cost 4) less energy utilization 5) less space consumption Performance 1)achieving service level agreement 2)Business continuity Effectiveness 1)expedition of development and testing process 2. virtualization Adoption of virtualization Adoption of virtualization Business benefits can be measured in terms of three parameters namely cost savings, energy utilization and space utilization. Cost saving One of the primary motives behind virtualization is cost reduction. It reduces the amount spent on the number of servers, operating cost and operating personnel. Also that it gives you a competitive advantage over the other competitors. Hence cost savings is considered to be one of the most vital business benefits of all. Cost is also saved through reduction in space and energy utilization. a)Energy Utilization As the number of servers utilized reduces, the energy consumption, the number of power cables used and the air conditioners used for regulating the room temperature too reduces. This also has a direct impact on the environment as it reduces the co2 emission and helps save the environment. b)Space Utilization The reduction in the number of servers reduces the space utilized in the office premises. This space can in turn be used for any other useful purposes. 2. Performance Virtualization technique helps the company to effectively complete the task well in time by improving the business continuity and in expediting the new system development and testing process. Thus helps in achieving service level agreement. 3. Effectiveness Virtualization technique improves the effectiveness of the organization by expediting the development and testing process which is one of the core activities of IT companies. 2.10 Limitation of the Study Many employees werent aware of virtualization as it is a emerging concept. So the questionnaires could be distributed only among the IT professionals who had the knowledge of virtualization. This made the data collection a little difficult and consumed lots of time. 2.11 Chapter Scheme This chapter will be continued with the discussion of the various types of virtualization technique and the business benefits for the organization in adopting them. This chapter will be followed by the industry profile of the information technology with respect to virtualization. The fourth chapter will be the analysis and interpretation of the data collected through the questionnaires. The fifth, the final chapter will enlist the findings and recommendations that have been derived out of the research. CHAPTER III- COMPANY PROFILE Cert Technologiesis an international software development company based in Asia (Chennai, India). Having strong base and tie-ups in UAE, Europe and America. The company has expertise in onshore software development, offshore software development, IT Support, Sub-Contracting and Web design services. We have domain expertise as mentioned under but not limited to it. We continuously strive to reach for new domains and skills Education (Higher Education R D) Insurance (Life and Non Life, Claims Settlement) Healthcare (Hospital and Laboratory Management) Finance (Advisory, Stocks, M F) Legal (Advisory) IT (BPO, Marketing, E-Learning, New Product Development) We strive hard to provide the best end-to-end software solutions that enables many companies to build, deepen and generate better relationships with their customers, alliance partners and workforce. We rely on our efficient customers and inhouse intellectual capital. With our experienced Directors, Project Managers, Macintosh and Windows Developers, Web designers, Macintosh and Windows Testers and Business Development Managers, we follow a flexible, proven methodology on each project to ensure our deliverables perform to specification and meet expectations. TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES We have good industry experience and we can handle projects in following technologies. Further we are well equipped to gear up easily to implement new technologies or solutions as per the client or the project needs. We have dedicated professionals in our R D team which we have setup recently Operating System Windows, Macintosh, Linux, UNIX, Free BSD, Symbian. G.U.I VC, VB, VF, Delphi, Visual Interdev, Java, Carbon, Cocoa. Case Tools Rational Rose, Power Designer. Databases MSSQL, Oracle, MS-Access, MySQL, Filemaker Pro(Macintosh). Tools Codewarrior, Visual Studio, Project Builder, Interface Builder, Xcode, IFS, DDK, Rapidweaver. Technologies .NET, Carbon, Cocoa, IRDA, WDM Drivers, USB, Applescript, Firewire, IO KIT. Internet ASP.NET (VC and VB.NET), J2EE, ASP, XML, PERL, CGI, PHP. Wireless Platforms WinCE on PocketPCs and Smart phones. Bug Tracking Mantis, Bugzilla. Connectivity ODBC, JDBC. Servers MS Exchange server, MS BizTalk server, Lotus Domino Server. Web Graphics Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw, Illustrator, Fireworks, Flash, Image ready, PageMaker, Director, 3D StudioMax CS. Out-of-Box Softwares Code warrior (Cross Platform development tool using C for Windows and Macintosh), Web crossing community board for iitiim.com (webcrossing.com), buildacommunity.com softwares for community building, VXMail (Voice Email Service), Credit cards (payment gateway on cybersmartinvestor.com), Shop site (E-commerce storefront building software), IMail (Ipswitch.com mailing service for NT Server.), WorldPay (payment gateway for crimeonline.info). SERVICES OUR SERVICES We were able to prove our worth in the following areas. Embedded Systems Matlab Nano Technology Distributed Computing Mobile Applications ERP Applications We assist more number of people with our student projects and provide exposure and support to the students with our technically qualified staffs every year. Lot of scholars from various colleges and universities are benefitted and hence, we still receive referrals from engineering colleges all over TamilNadu. In a short span, we were able to spread our organization to inner parts of TamilNadu and started our next branch in a city called Trichy where it is surrounded with number of educational institutions. We got adequate support and response from the colleges and universities in and around Trichy. After establishing our new branch in Trichy we expanded our horizon and continued to provide extensive support in college projects all over the southern parts of TamilNadu. We render adequate technical knowledge and information about current trends prevailing in the IT Industry through our training and project guidance. Thus we have a high success rate and satisfaction rate in both Chennai and Trichy. Software training and beyond Cert Technologies, known for diversified applications with top-notch technological approach has the experience and expertise to help you meet global IT challenges. We are Strong innovative team with focused attitude towards success. Cert Technologies is a global business solution provider in project training and development. Cert Technologies understands the specific needs of career-oriented people and therefore offers customized computer courses for almost every segment of the IT industry. Cert Technologies approach is built on the success of using the right combination of strategy, people, processes, technology infrastructure to meet challenges specific needs of people. Our intense training programs are designed not only for technology training but also to help students to understand the current trends and technologies that prevail in the market. It also provides adequate knowledge to understand the actual project requirements in any domain they work with. These are job-oriented career courses, which open up global careers in the sphere of Information Technology. Careers courses with industry endorsed course curriculum gives you the best in IT education as they have been designed by industry veterans and professionals. These training programs are ideal for Organizations who provide on-campus induction programs for their employees to provide updates in the recent technologies. We change your dreams into happy accomplishments Training Highlights Experienced trainers Interactive training sessions Well equipped facilities Standard Text materials Placement Assistance Courses Offered Web Technology Java / J2EE Dot Net ASP / XML PHP / MySql Joomla / SilverLight System Administration Unix/Linux Linux Administration Database Administration Oracle 10G Oracle Database Administration Multimedia Animation Adobe Page maker / Adobe CorelDraw / Adobe Photoshop Macromedia Flash / Dream Weaver / Fireworks Maya Other specialization Embedded Systems Software Testing Maya Project Training Swift Entry into the Software World is necessary to pace up with the speed of the industry. Project exposure training gives practical development experience in the training phase itself. It helps the students to understand the necessities and the techniques required to plan, organize, develop, and test and implementation of the software projects. It explains and covers all the important Segments of Software Profession. It gives exposure to Real Life Projects. These are job-oriented career guidance, which open up global careers in the sphere of Information Technology. Careers courses with industry endorsed course curriculum gives you the best in IT education as they have been designed by industry veterans and professionals. Project Area Java Cloud Computing Grid Computing Mobile Computing Nano Technology Networking Solutions Data Engineering Data Mining Secure Computing Parallel Distributed Computing Dot net Cloud Computing Grid Computing Mobile Computing Nano Technology Networking Solutions Data Engineering Data Mining Secure Computing Parallel Distributed Computing IT Consulting Cert Technologies offers a full lifecycle of consulting and technology services with global capabilities. We offer business and technology advisory services to help companies analyze and improve business operations and strategies. Our projects prove their worth by catering the unique requirements of every industry, totally committed on delivery schedule and quality. Custom Software Development ERP And System Integration Application Management Web Development IT Outsourcing Services Consulting Services From developing customized business strategies and technologies to helping clients deal with changing business and technology issues, Cert Technologies offers contemporary solutions based on tools, methodologies, and best-practices developed over years of experience. Our collaborative methods, efficient development techniques, and alliances with top technology companies allow us to develop high-quality application, development and integration solutions quickly and cost effectively. We ensure high quality services through the following aspects. A team of professionals highly capable of designing state of the art quality projects Our crop of Project associates who are well versed in the latest web design and web programming technologies Prompt and dedicated support to our clients Our aim to achieve 100 customer satisfaction Quality services at affordable rates Reliable, known for timely delivery Web Design and Development Cert Technologies primarily based IT Solutions Company. Our core Services includes Software Development , web site coming up with Development, ERP CRM consulting services and Application Support Solutions. We offer high-quality, Software Services at wonderful and reasonable price. We have a tendency to be providing services, solutions and product to Enterprises worldwide. Calling on the correct company for your complete IT Solutions will simply be the distinction between confidence and catastrophe. We were able to prove our worth in the following areas. Application Development Application Enhancements Website Development Online searching Carts Software product With 1st hand expertise within the IT sector, we have a tendency to perceive how the trade works and that we grasp precisely what our customers are yearning for. we have a tendency to constantly analysis the market to form certain we have a tendency to are up to hurry on all the newest developments. This implies our software services and product are continuously up up to now, providing you with skills which will be of real worth within the current trade market. Our technical experience includes within the technologies like ERP, CRM, .Net, PHP, JAVA, J2EE, Oracle, Hardware Networking and Application Support delivery through Service Level Agreements. We place a high premium on our folks, quality and business values. we have a tendency to develop our workers through continuous coaching program and supply them with opportunities to figure on state-of-the-art technologies. INDUSTRY PROFILE In all, IT services contain nine separate sub-sectors engaged in computer programming, publishing, telecommunications services, and entertainment. Nationwide, 5.0 of firms fall into the IT services sector, and account for 5.5 of employment and 7.6 of wages. Within IT services, arts, entertainment, and recreation account for the largest share of employment (30.8), followed by computer systems design services (20.6), telecommunications (15.7), and publishing industries (14.5) 3.1 History of Information Technology 3.1.1Scientific Origins and Legacies of the Internet Though the Internet today is a vehicle for commerce, entertainment, news, and personal communication, its origins lie in scientific endeavor, and it has been fundamentally shaped by scientific practices and values. The Internet was originally created to support scientists, and its technical design reflected the needs and abilities of this group. Many striking aspects of Internet culture, which have been celebrated as virtual community, grew directly out of the scientific communitys ideals of openness, collaboration, and sharing of data and resources. The composition of the early Internet community also mirrored the wider scientific community on which it was based white, male, and somewhat elite, but also international in scope. 3.1.2 Scientific Origins, Design Choices, and Culture The Internets predecessor, the ARPANET, was built in the late 1960s by computer scientists funded by a US defense agency. The network had three goals to save costs by allowing computers to be used more widely to allow scientists to share resources such as specialized hardware, software, and data andmost importantlyto strengthen the scientific community by making it easier for scientists to interact and collaborate. In the late 1980s the network was taken over by the civilian National Science Foundation and served scientists in a wide range of fields. While the original Internet was commercialized in the 1990s, next generation projects such as Internet2 share a similar structure, funded by government (with private sector partners) and run by scientific and educational organizations. As a scientific project, the Internet was conceived as an object of research as well as a tool for research, and was therefore designed to use cutting edge experimental techniques and modes of analysis. To help explore the potential of this new technology, its creators made the Internet an open, modular, flexible, system that users could experiment with and modify. Its decentralized design contrasts sharply with most commercial products and systems, which tend to be closed and are designed to be idiot proof rather than inviting users to modify them. The Internets creators assumed that users would be technically capable, creative, and trustworthyin other words, scientists like themselves. These design choices had important consequences. The long term success of the Internet is largely due to its ability to grow and adapt to new infrastructure, such as Ethernet and wireless, and new applications, such as streaming video and peer to peer file sharing. The systems openness to user experimentation encouraged grassroots innovations that became major applications, most notably the World Wide Web and more recently music sharing, games, and blogs. On the other hand, the Internets flexibility makes it unpredictable and hard to control. Its openness has made the Internet vulnerable to viruses and other attacks, spam, and fraud. Security measures have had to be retrofitted to reflect the reality that the Internet no longer serves just a community of colleagues but the entire world in all its diversity. The culture of the Internet was also shaped by the scientific ideals, including openness, collaboration, and decision making by consensus. This has led to an emphasis on nonproprietary technologies, applications for sharing information and collaborating, horizontal rather than hierarchical lines of communication, and a sense of virtual community online. The creators of the Internet also put in place a remarkable consensus process for technical decisions, which is still operative in bodies like the Internet Engineering Task Force. The IETFs bottom up, consensus based style has worked remarkably well for developing effective technologies in a timely manner while avoiding control by a single company or country. While the Internet began in the US, from early days the group that designed it reflected the global nature of the scientific community. Computer scientists from France, England, and Japan were involved in the design of the Internet protocols in the 1970s, and academic computer networks in Europe and Asia connected with the US Internet in the 1980s to provide international email networks well before the Internet itself had become global. Todays next generation Internet is also an international effortthough uneven levels of participation reflect the reality of unequal resources. 3.1.3 Conflicts and Policy Issues The Internets origins as a tool for scientists laid the groundwork for a flexible, expandable, robust system that has successfully served a much larger population. But policy issues arise from the conflicting needs and desires of the Internets broader user baseincluding military, business, and ordinary usersand the need to expand and diversify participation. Scientists desire to treat the Internet as an open experimental system has repeatedly clashed with the military interest in a stable and secure environment. In 1983, for example, the Defense Department split off the military users from the ARPANET to create a second network called MILNET, so that military users would not be disrupted by scientists experiments with the network. A more recent dispute has been over the use and export of encryption technology, which the US government has tried to restrict in the name of national security. Computer scientists have argued that such restrictions are futile (since strong encryption is already available outside the US) and have a chilling effect on scientific communication. There is also a gap in the US between the internationalism of the scientific community and the more narrowly nationalist outlook of the government. The US has been at odds with much of the world on issues such as technical standards, export restrictions for encryption, and the move to IPv6, which many countries see as necessary to create a sufficient supply of IP addresses (of which the US currently controls the lions share). Computer scientists have in some cases organized to insert the views of scientists into these political debates. Habits of openness and sharing on the Internet also conflict with the desire of business interests for secrecy, closed proprietary interfaces, and tightly controlled dissemination of intellectual property. The 1970s saw debates over whether technical standards for networking should be proprietary or public, with the eventual triumph of the open TCP/IP standard thanks to US government backing. In the 1980s, tensions over business use of the taxpayer funded Internet eventually led to its privatization and commercialization. More recent conflicts focus on intellectual property, such as the entertainment industrys push for harsh legal measures to restrict copying. Computer scientists have complained that these laws criminalize normal scholarly research and communication for scientists working in this area. 3.2 Industry snapshots The computer systems design and related services industry is among the economys largest and fastest sources of employment growth. Employment increased by 616,000 over the 1994-2004 periods, posting a staggering 8.0-percent annual growth rate. The projected 2004-14 employment increase of 453,000 translates into 1.6 million jobs, and represents a relatively slower annual growth rate of 3.4 percent as productivity increases and offshore outsourcing take their toll. (Industry output and employment projections to 2014 by Jay M. Berman, Bureau of Labor Statistics) However, the main growth catalyst for this industry is expected to be the persistent evolution of technology and business constant effort to absorb and integrate these resources to enhance their productivity and expand their market opportunities. Employment of computer and information systems managers is expected to grow between 18 to 26 percent for all occupations through the year 2014. (Career Guide to Industries 2006-07) 3.3 Work Force Issues 1. Outsourcing There is concern about federal, state and local government policy proposals that may restrict overseas outsourcing where labor costs are lower. Some companies move jobs overseas to remain competitive by managing labor costs. Others are opening new markets overseas for their products and hiring local employees as an incentive and an accommodation. 2. Government resources Some stakeholders believe that the government can offer tax relief to small businesses for training their incumbent workers toward IT certification. 3. Role of government in industrys workforce initiatives Stakeholders also believe that government could serve as an honest broker for specific issues such as promotion and image, forecasting the future of the workforce and training needs. This could be a task for the public education system, where children could be introduced to the new, dynamic global workplace and learn more about the current business culture. 4. Skills and training Over 90 percent of IT workers are employed outside the IT industry, which makes it necessary for them to have complementary training in their respective business sectors such as health care, manufacturing or financial services. Employers are also looking for well developed soft skills, transferable IT skills and adaptability in their workforce. Incumbent training programs may help in this respect, as could community colleges. 3.4 Skill Sets (Source U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006-07 Career Guide to Industries) For all IT-related occupations, technical and professional certifications are growing more popular and increasingly important. IT workers must continually update and acquire new skills to remain qualified in this dynamic field. Completion of vocational training also is an asset. According to a May 2000 report by the Urban Institute, community colleges play a critical role in training new workers and in retraining both veteran workers and workers from other fields. People interested in becoming computer support specialists generally need only an Associate degree in a computer-related field, as well as significant hands-on experience with computers. They also must possess strong problem-solving and analytical skills as well as excellent communication skills because troubleshooting and helping others are such vital aspects of the job. And because there is constant interaction on the job with other computer personnel, customers, and employees, computer support specialists must be able to communicate effectively on paper, using e-mail, and in person. They also must possess strong writing skills when preparing manuals for employees and customers. 3.5 IT industry of India Information Technology (IT) industry in India is one of the fastest growing industries. Indian IT industry has built up valuable brand equity for itself in the global markets. IT industry in India comprises of software industry and information technology enabled services (ITES), which also includes business process outsourcing (BPO) industry. India is considered as a pioneer in software development and a favorite destination for IT-enabled services. The origin of IT industry in India can be traced to 1974, when the mainframe manufacturer, Burroughs, asked its India sales agent, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), to export programmers for installing system software for a U.S. client. The IT industry originated under unfavorable conditions and Local markets were absent and government policy toward private enterprise was hostile. The industry was begun by Bombay-based conglomerates which entered the business by supplying programmers to global IT firms located overseas. During that time Indian economy was state-controlled and the state remained hostile to the software industry through the 1970s. Import tariffs were high (135 on hardware and 100 on software) and software was not considered an industry, so that exporters were ineligible for bank finance. Government policy towards IT sector changed when Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister in 1984. His New Computer Policy (NCP-1984) consisted of a package of reduced import tariffs on hardware and software (reduced to 60), recognition of software exports as a delicensed industry, i.e., henceforth eligible for bank finance and freed from license-permit raj, permission for foreign firms to set up wholly-owned, export-dedicated units and a project to set up a chain of software parks that would offer infrastructure at below-market costs. These policies laid the foundation for the development of a world-class IT industry in India. Today, Indian IT companies such as Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Wipro, Infosys, and HCL et al are renowned in the global market for their IT prowess. Some of the major factors which played a key role in Indias emergence as key global IT player are1. Indian Education System The Indian education system places strong emphasis on mathematics and science, resulting in a large number of science and engineering graduates. Mastery over quantitative concepts coupled with English proficiency has resulted in a skill set that has enabled India to reap the benefits of the current International demand for IT.2. High Quality Human Resource Indian programmers are known for their strong technical and analytical skills and their willingness to accommodate clients. India also has one of the largest pools of English-speaking professionals. 3. Competitive Costs The cost of software development and other services in India is very competitive as compared to the West. 4. Infrastructure Scenario Indian IT industry has also gained immensely from the availability of a robust infrastructure (telecom, power and roads) in the country. In the last few years Indian IT industry has seen tremendous growth. Destinations such as Bangalore, Hyderabad and Gurgaon have evolved into global IT hubs. Several IT parks have come up at Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chennai, Pune, Gurgaon etc. These parks offer Silicon Valley type infrastructure. In the light of all the factors that have added to the strength of Indian IT industry, it seems that Indian success story is all set to continue. 3.6 Efforts towards going green More than 20 years of research into carbon pollution now strongly suggests that human activity is having a profound impact on the Earths climate. The almost indisputable evidence has now forced many governments to action by implementing tangible strategies and policies that reduce carbon emissions. As one of the many measures to tackle the problem, it calls for countries to implement carbon emissions trading schemes to steadily reduce pollution, but at a cost to businesses. So what has all this got to do with storage The net effect of these new trading systems, coupled with the fact that the worlds reserves of non-renewable resources are rapidly depleting, means the cost of power is rising. In the past, the cost of powering and cooling data centers was negligible and was often not even factored into the IT budget. However, according to an IDC article in 2008, recent surveys suggest that with continued deployment of applications and data doubling every 18 months, power and cooling costs has grown by eightfold in 2010 In another survey, by Gartner Consulting, findings showed that the power consumption required to run and cool data centers accounts for almost a quarter of global carbon dioxide emissions from the information and communication technology sector. And the StorageIO Group reports that storage itself accounts for between 37 and 40 percent of total energy usage from hardware. With business accounting for a substantial share of greenhouse gas pollution, many organizations have developed social responsibility policies to help protect the environment. Demonstrating to customers and their respective industries makes them not only conscious of the issue, but care about being part of the solution, is important for organizations. A number of large multinational companies, such as Citigroup, Vodafone, HSBC, and British Telecom, have already committed to carbon reductions within their companies, some aiming to be carbon neutral altogether. All these factors are prompting businesses to look at innovative ways to become more efficient users of power in order to comply with government policies, control their budgets, and protect their reputations, along with the environment. Many IT vendors are already actively delivering products that have less environmental impact. Through streamlining production processes, many vendors have eliminated waste, requiring less carbon-dependent power. Smarter designs of components such as processors and power supplies, and the ability to spin down inactive disks, reduce the running costs, and use of non-hazardous materials in the product itself protects the environment when it is disposed of. However, these initiatives only go part of the way. With data storage growing at such exponential rates, together with the inefficiency of traditional storage networking, provisioning and application consumption methods, storage virtualization can go the next step by eliminating unnecessary waste By tiering storage resources and aligning the right storage characteristics to the value of the information, organizations can use platforms that utilize disk spin-down technologies for archive data, for example, that is infrequently accessed. 3.7 Emergence of Virtualization in IT Industry The roots of virtualization are best seen in the computer time sharing practices of the late 1950s and early 1960s.Time-sharing was necessary in these distributed computing environments because the technology was extremely expensive.It was not practical to dedicate a computer system to a single user, thus a scheme for dividing the resources among many users was developed.These schemes often used executive programming which employed a combination of software and hardware in order to delegate (based on a specified time interval) which user would receive attention from the central processing unit at a particular time (Popell, 1966).As we will see, this process is similar to that of what we know today as virtualization, in that a layer of abstraction is created in order to logically assign the use of a computer asset.A related concept, multi programming , also garnered much attention in this time frame. In 1967 IBM announced the IBM360 version 67, which was the first computer to contain virtual memory, a method in which disk space is used to expand the RAM size of a machine.Later, in the 1970s, the emergence of the virtual machine came about.With the virtual machine, an entire system (software and hardware) could be emulated in a contained environment.The virtual machine is perhaps the first form of virtualization, as we know it today.Obviously, these last two instances are an influence on the nomenclature of what we now refer to as virtualization.With the introduction of Intels recent release of its Vanderpool technology (and AMDs subsequent Pacifica technology), which provides hardware native server virtualization functionality, the concept of virtualization has taken one step further toward becoming a high-impact, common practice in the enterprise. CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 4.1 Introduction This chapter enlists the results of the analysis of the primary data collected from the IT employees. 200 questionnaires were sent to some of the IT professionals whom I know in some of the software companies. The survey participants include software engineers, project managers and business analysts..The questions for the survey were about the various business benefits of virtualization. At first the characteristics of the sample chosen for the survey is described. It is followed by the descriptive characteristics of the data. Finally the inferential characteristics of the collected data are described. The data collected was analyzed through statistical tools such as spss and excel. 4.2 Sample characteristics 4.2.1 Gender Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1Male63632Female3737TOTAL100100Figure Inference The questionnaire on virtualization was sent to 150 employees of the IT companies out of which 100 employees responded and sent across their views on virtualization. The rest of the fifty employees were not aware of the virtualization technique and its benefits. Out of the 100 respondents 63 of the employees were male and the rest of the 37 of the respondents were female. 4.2.2 Age Group Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE120-308080230-402020340-5000TOTAL100100 Figure Inference Most of the respondents were between the age group of twenty to thirty. After this category of respondents the next highest of responses were obtained from thirty to forty age group of people. No response was obtained from forty to fifty age group of employee as most of them were in senior positions and so was busy with their work. 4.2.3 Years of IT Experience Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE11-2yrs454523-4yrs303035-6yrs151546yrs1010TOTAL100100 Figure Inference From the above table it is inferred that 45 of the respondents have 1 to 2 years of experience, 30 of the respondents have 3 to 4 years of experience, 15 of the respondents have 5 to 6 years and 10 of the respondents have more than 6 years experience. Most of the respondents have 1 to 2 years of experience 4.2.4 Qualification Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1UG65652PG25253Diploma10104Doctoral00TOTAL100100 Figure Inference From the above table it is inferred that 65 of the respondents are UG graduates, 25 of the respondents are PG graduates and 10 of the respondents are diploma holders. Most of the respondents are UG graduates 4.2.5 Designation Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1Software Engineer65652Project Manager13133Business Analyst10104Others1212TOTAL100100Figure Inference Among the 100 respondents, the highest numbers of responses were from the software engineers who made use of these virtualization techniques in their projects. They constituted 65 of the total responses. The next highest of responses were obtained from project managers many of whom had a clear cut idea about the business benefits on the adoption of the virtualization technique. They constituted 13 0f the total responses. 10 of the respondents were business analyst and the rest of the respondents were also IT professionals other than the above mentioned three designations. 4.3 Descriptive statistics 4.3.1 Adoption of Virtualization Technique Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1Server Virtualization28282Desktop Virtualization25253Storage Virtualization13134Operating System Virtualization12125Network Virtualization2222TOTAL100100 Figure Inference From the responses collected from 100 IT professions it shows that almost all the companies starting from big to small have started adopting virtualization technique. Out of all the virtualization techniques Server Virtualization is the most preferred virtualization technique. It accounts for 28 of total adoption of the technique. The next highly preferred technique is that of desktop virtualization which accounts for 25 of the total. The next in line is network virtualization which makes up to 22.The last in line are the Operating system virtualization and storage virtualization which makes up 12 and 13 respectively. Out of all the virtualization technique Server virtualization is considered to be the most popular and adopted virtualization technique. 4.3.2 Most Popular Virtualization Product Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1VM ware ESX552VM Ware Virtual centre10103VM Ware994Storage V motion11115VM ware VDI19196Microsoft Hyper V23237Citrix xen source10108VNC Viewer1313TOTAL100100 Figure Inference When asked for the specific virtualization product that they currently employ in their company, most of them voted for VM ware VDI. VM Ware VDI was the most preferred product in Desktop virtualization. It got positive response from 19 respondents of the total. Among the server virtualization Microsofts Hyper-V was voted the highest. In network virtualization nearly three quarters that is 13 of the survey respondents cited VNC viewer as being deployed in their company. 4.3.3 Benefit of Virtualization Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1Maximize computer resources usage15152Cost reduction43433Flexibility11114Agility22225Space utilization99 TOTAL 100 100 Figure EMBED Excel.Chart.8 s Inference From the above table, it can be inferred that out of 100 respondents 43 of the respondents are cost reduction is most significant business benefit of virtualization while 9 of the respondents are space utilization is most significant business benefit of virtualization. Most of the respondents are cost reduction is most significant business benefit of virtualization. 4.3.4 Barriers for Adopting Virtualization Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1Network Issue22222Application Performance31313Budget16164Management775Scalability13136Operational Issues1111TOTAL100100 Figure Inference Though there is an opinion that virtualization is a pretty old concept, its adoption has been very slow. Some of the factors that are generally considered to be barriers for the adoption of virtualization were put across the survey respondents and were asked to choose among them the factors which according to them is considered highly a barrier. Some of the factors which were cited to be the most barriers by the survey respondents were network issues, application performance and budget which were voted by 22, 31 and 16 members of the total respectively. Scalability and management were not considered to be a big issue in the adoption of virtualization and was voted by a very few of the respondents, that is 13 and 8 members respectively. 4.3.5 Does Virtualization help in reducing work load Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1High31312Medium59593Low1010TOTAL100100Figure Inference Most of the IT employees have to come across several ordeals due to work pressure. At times when they are loaded with heavy work they find it to be hectic and become exhausted soon. This in turn affects organizational performance. When asked about this issue to the survey respondents, 31 of the employees felt that the adoption of virtualization highly helps them in reducing their work load. 59 of the employees felt that the adoption of virtualization has medium effect on workload reduction and 10 of the employees said that the adoption of virtualization does not help them out in their work load reduction. 4.3.6 Does the virtual infrastructure expedite the development and testing of the new system Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1High78782Medium15153Low77TOTAL100100Figure Inference The development and testing of new software is one of the core activities of the IT organizations. The adoption of virtualization in many ways will enable the software personals to develop and test the new systems in a fast pace by the provision of virtual working environment. In order to obtain the employees opinion on this, the respondents were asked to what extent the adoption of virtualization expedite the development and testing process. 78 of the respondents said that the adoption of virtualization highly helps them in development and testing process. 15 of the respondents voted to be medium and 7 of the respondents voted it to be low. 4.3.7 Is Going Green the Reason behind Virtualization Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1Yes23232No54543Do Not know2323TOTAL100100 Figure Inference With business accounting for a substantial share of greenhouse gas pollution and other hazardous environmental impacts, many organizations have developed social responsibility policies to help protect the environment. . Many have an opinion that the organizations go for virtualization in order to be branded environment friendly. When asked about this issue to the survey respondent that whether going green is the main motive behind virtualization, a majority of them cited no as the answer for the question.54 of the respondents answered disagreed that that going green is the main motive behind virtualization. 23 of the respondents agreed to the statement and the rest of the 23 were not sure of the answer. 4.3.8 Important Role of Virtualization Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1Reduces IT complexity14142Enables standardization25253Improves agility31314Improves cost-efficiency1095Facilitates automation2121TOTAL100100Figure EMBED Excel.Chart.8 s Inference From the above table, it can be inferred that out of 100 respondents 31 of the respondents are improves agility is the important role of virtualization while 9 of the respondents are improves cost-efficiency is the important role of virtualization. Most of the respondents are improves agility is the important role of virtualization. 4.3.9 OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES OF VIRTUALIZATION Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1Capacity Management27282Security Risks43423The Risk of Making Errors11104Operational responsibility varies by geography2020TOTAL100100Figure EMBED Excel.Chart.8 s Inference From the above table, it can be inferred that out of 100 respondents 42 of the respondents are security risk is the operational challenges of virtualization while 10 of the respondents are risk of making errors is the operational challenges of virtualization. Most of the respondents are security risk is the operational challenges of virtualization. 4.3.10 DRIVING FORCE BEHIND IT COMPANIES TO GO FOR VIRTUALIZATION Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1Underutilized hardware 21212Data centers run out of space29293Green initiatives demand better energy efficiency11104Need for Advancement was inevitable22225To stay ahead in the competition1818TOTAL100100 Figure EMBED Excel.Chart.8 s Inference From the above table, it can be inferred that out of 100 respondents 29 of the respondents are Data centers run out of space is the reason of the IT companies to go for virtualization while 10 of the respondents are Green initiatives demand better energy efficiency is the reason of the IT companies to go for virtualization. Most of the respondents are Data centers run out of space are the reason of the IT companies to go for virtualization. 4.3.11 SUPPORT THIS VIRTUALIZATION TECHNOLOGY Table S.NOPARTICULARSNO OF RESPONDENTSPERCENTAGE1Yes60602No4040TOTAL100100 Figure Inference From the above table, it can be inferred that out of 100 respondents 52 of the respondents are supporting this virtualization technology while 48 of the respondents are not supporting this virtualization technology. Most of the respondents are support this virtualization technology. 4.4 Inferential Statistics Based on my objective to analyze the business benefits of the organizations on the adoption of virtualization techniques I formulated the following hypothesis. 1. Adoption of virtualization has a positive impact on cost savings. 2. Adoption of virtualization has a positive impact on Service level Agreement. 3. Adoption of virtualization has a positive impact on Business Continuity. As one of the variable is dependent over the other t test is done to test these hypothesis. T test and correlation test for these hypotheses was done through excel and spss statistical tool. 4.4.1 Correlation When the primary data collected through questionnaires was analyzed certain variables was found to be correlated with each other. 1. Cost and service level agreement was found to be correlated as the Pearsons r is 0.338 which is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Service Level Agreement refers to the contracted delivery time of the service. If the service level agreement is not achieved then the company is liable to its clients and has to pay penalty as signed up in the agreement. This is a loss for the company. Thus service level agreement and cost are correlated. 2. Cost and space was found to be correlated as Pearsons r is 0.258 which is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). As the number of servers used is reduced through server virtualization, the space utilized by the servers is also reduced. As the space utilized by the servers reduces the amount spent on the rental charges also reduces. Thus cost and space are correlated. 4.4.2 T Test 1. For first hypothesis Adoption of virtualization has a positive impact on cost savings the T value obtained for this was one sample t (100) 46.784, p 0.01 which is significant.Hence the first hypothesis is accepted.This hypothesis emphasizes that the adoption of the virtualization especially the server virtualization reduces the operational cost for an organization. Reduction in the operational cost would be of great help for the organization, as the company can utilize this amount for the further growth and expansion of the company. Hence adoption of virtualization would serve as a good strategy for the company in providing lesser priced goods and services to the consumers than their competitors. 2. For second hypothesis Adoption of virtualization has a positive impact on service level agreement the T value obtained for this was one sample t (100) 72.590, p 0.01 which is significant. Hence the second hypothesis is accepted. Service Level Agreement refers to the contracted delivery time (of the service) or performance. It is negotiated agreement between two parties one is the customer and the service provider. As adoption virtualization helps in expediting the development and testing of new systems, it has a direct impact on achieving the service level agreement. So the adoption of virtualization is a sort of competitive advantage for an organization 3. For third hypothesis Adoption of virtualization has a positive impact on business continuity the T value obtained was sample t (100) 31.202, p 0.01 which is significant. This value of the T test is considered to be a convincing one. Hence the third hypothesis is accepted. In case of any mishaps or chaos in the organization the entire working can be replicated to another datacenter or else it can be backed up and restored at a different location. Hence adoption of virtualization helps in the business continuity of an organization and never affects the business continuity. Findings 1. Many of the IT employees are not aware of the virtualization techniques and its benefits. Nearly half of the employees to whom the questionnaires were sent didnt respond properly because they werent aware of the virtualization techniques. Once all the employees become aware of all the virtualization concepts, they will find it to be more interesting to work with it. This will have a great impact on their performance. 2. Server virtualization is the most popular type of virtualization. Server virtualization didnt lose its popularity even after a very long time. Still more and more of the companies go for server virtualization due to its extraordinary benefits. 3. Not only the server virtualization the other types of virtualization like desktop and network virtualization too started gaining popularity. Three to five years back it was just the server virtualization that was dominating the market. Now due to advance in technology and increase in competition the other types of virtualization like desktop virtualization and network virtualization too have been used widely in the companies. 4. Adoption of virtualization helps companies to perform better.The adoption of virtualization techniques helps the employees to achieve their service level agreement on time. Even at times of failure and downtime, virtualization helps in recovery and business continuity. Overall virtualization increases the performance of the organizations. 5. Adoption of virtualization increases the effectiveness of the organizations The adoption of virtualization technique helps in expediting the development and testing of the new systems. This enables the employees to complete their task at a fast pace. Hence it increases the effectives of the organization. 6. Adoption of virtualization results in cost savings. Creation of the virtual instance of the working environment reduces the cost as compared to the creation of the original working environment which requires lots of hardware, software, space and energy. This is one of the strategies that the company can follow in order to have a competitive edge over the others. 7. One of most barriers in the adoption of virtualization is application performance. One of the reasons which stop companies from adopting virtualization is application performance. Next to this the other factors that were found to be the barriers for the adoption of virtualization are budget and management. 8. Going green is not the main motive behind virtualization. Though there is a general notion that many companies go for virtualization in order to be branded environment friendly, the main reason behind adopting virtualization is the business benefits achieved out of it. Conclusion Suggestions 1. The management of the organizations has to focus on educating the employees on the virtualization concepts soon after its adoption. This will induce special interest in the employees while working with it which in turn will increase the organizational performance. 2. The management has to encourage Investment in RD for implementing virtualization in its various business units according to their needs. APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE Name ___________________________ Organization ___________________________ City ___________________________ Gender Male Female Which age range do you fall into 20-30 30-40 40-50 Years of IT Experience 1-2yrs 3-4yrs 5-6yrs 6yrs Qualification UG PG Diploma Doctoral What is your designation Software Engineer Technical associates Project Manager Business Analyst Specify if any other Which adoption of Virtualization Technique do you prefer Server Virtualization Desktop Virtualization Storage Virtualization Operating System Virtualization Network Virtualization Which is the Most Popular Virtualization Product VM ware ESX VM ware Virtual Centre Storage V Motion VM ware VDI Microsoft Hyper V VNC Viewer Which is the most significant Business benefit of Virtualization Maximize computer resources usage Cost reduction Automation Flexibility Agility Space utilization What would be the Barrier for Adopting Virtualization Network Issue Application Performance Budget Management Scalability Operational Issues Does Virtualization help in reducing work load High Medium Low Does the virtual infrastructure expedite the development and testing of the new system High Medium Low Is Going Green the Reason behind Virtualization Yes No Do not Know What is the most important Role of Virtualization Reduces IT complexity Enables standardization Improves agility Improves cost-efficiency Facilitates automation What are the Operational Challenges of Virtualization Capacity Management Security Risks The Risk of Making Errors Operational responsibility varies by geography What is the driving force behind IT Companies to go for virtualization Underutilized hardware Data centers run out of space Green initiatives demand better energy efficiency Need for Advancement was inevitable To stay ahead in the competition Do you support this Virtualization Technology Yes No YXZ9rHh zwYScYg 2, [email protected]/t xU8PMgd @u10O7R DCCC ywr2Rljt- zJJG22JGzBW_YZguG473r [email protected]
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