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There are a number of causes of dementia

There are a number of causes of dementia. It is caused by a deterioration of the cerebral cortex which controls a person’s memories, personality and thinking. The brain cells die in the cerebral cortex and this leads to the loss of decrease in these abilities. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. Protein deposits destroy the cells in the places of the brain that control mental and memory functions. Vascular dementia is another cause of dementia which is caused by fatty blockages in the arteries that affect blood flow to the brain. This can lead to multiple strokes and permanent damage to the brain. ( http://www.dementia.com/causes.html)
2.4 Describe the following features of dementia:
Cognitive – beginning to be less able to store memories or process complex thoughts.
Behavioural – patient may lose sense of inhibition. The patient’s behaviour may change and be out of the ordinary for them.
Neurological – change in the patient’s normal functions due to the chemical changes and cell death in the brain. Patient may develop a tremor.
2.5 Differentiate between the pathophysiology of the four types of dementia
The four types of dementia are as follows; Alzheimer’s, Vascular dementia, Lewy bodies, Frontotemporal dementia. Alzheimer’s is mainly caused by the gathering of protein in the brain leading to cell death and reducing the signal carriers such as neurotransmitters. Vascular dementia starts in the arteries and is caused by fatty lumps narrowing the vessels and hardening. This leads to multiple strokes and death of brain tissue. Lewy bodies are caused by protein developing inside the brain cells and destroying them. Frontotemporal dementia is caused by the frontal and temporal lobe of the brain shrinking and causing damage. This can be caused by a head injury, tumours or long term alcohol abuse.

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