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Unit 3 DET Sept 2017 – Group B Submission Front Sheet Assignment Code

Unit 3 DET Sept 2017 – Group B

Submission Front Sheet
Assignment Code:DET19AB3
Program: Pearson BTEC Level 5 Diploma in Education and Training
Unit Title: Theories, Principles and Models in E & T (Unit 3)
Unit reference number: A/505/0818
QCF Level: 5 Credit Value: 20
Module Tutor: Tabassum Ferdous
Email: [email protected]
Learner Name: EDITH NKEMDILIM
Registration Number: 23585
-9525330835Learner’s statement of authenticity
Student’s Name: __EDITH NKEMDILIM_____________________
Student’s ID Number: _23585__________________
I certify that the work submitted for this assignment is my own. Where the work of others has been used to support my work then credit has been acknowledged. I have identified and acknowledged all sources used in this assignment and have referenced according to the Harvard referencing system. I have read and understood the Plagiarism and Collusion section provided with the assignment brief and understood the consequences of plagiarising.

Signature: ___________________Date: ___/___/_____

00Learner’s statement of authenticity
Student’s Name: __EDITH NKEMDILIM_____________________
Student’s ID Number: _23585__________________
I certify that the work submitted for this assignment is my own. Where the work of others has been used to support my work then credit has been acknowledged. I have identified and acknowledged all sources used in this assignment and have referenced according to the Harvard referencing system. I have read and understood the Plagiarism and Collusion section provided with the assignment brief and understood the consequences of plagiarising.

Signature: ___________________Date: ___/___/_____

Date:29th January 2018
……………………………………………
2175510301625yes
00yes

2066290350520 7,000 words
00 7,000 words
48583852857500Is this a First Submission or Second Submission ?
Word Count (Approx.)
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc505031471 h 3THEORY. PAGEREF _Toc505031472 h 3MODELS. PAGEREF _Toc505031473 h 3PRINCIPLE: PAGEREF _Toc505031474 h 3LEARNNG THEORIES. PAGEREF _Toc505031475 h 4Task 1 PAGEREF _Toc505031476 h 4Analyse theories, principles model of learning and models of learning preferences. PAGEREF _Toc505031477 h 4Behaviourism PAGEREF _Toc505031478 h 4How I can apply this to my teaching: PAGEREF _Toc505031479 h 5Critics PAGEREF _Toc505031480 h 5Cognitivism PAGEREF _Toc505031481 h 6How I can apply this to my teaching: PAGEREF _Toc505031482 h 6Critics PAGEREF _Toc505031483 h 7Humanist PAGEREF _Toc505031484 h 7How I can apply this: PAGEREF _Toc505031485 h 8Learning Preferences model PAGEREF _Toc505031486 h 8Fleming’s VAK Model PAGEREF _Toc505031487 h 8The Honey-Mumford Model PAGEREF _Toc505031488 h 9The Kolb Learning Model PAGEREF _Toc505031489 h 9Diverges: PAGEREF _Toc505031490 h 9Converges: PAGEREF _Toc505031491 h 9Accommodators: PAGEREF _Toc505031492 h 10Assimilators PAGEREF _Toc505031493 h 10Task 1b PAGEREF _Toc505031494 h 10Ways to Apply Theories, Principles, and Models to Teaching, Assessment, and Learning PAGEREF _Toc505031495 h 10Task 1C PAGEREF _Toc505031496 h 13How the Identification and Consideration of the Individual Learning Preferences of Learners Enhance Inclusive and Comprehensive Learning, Assessment, and Teaching. PAGEREF _Toc505031497 h 13Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc505031498 h 14
INTRODUCTIONThis assignment will tell us the meaning of theories, principles, models of learning and learning preferences which will help me to analyse some of these theories, principles and models through research and this assignment will also show how learners preferences should be incorporated to ensure inclusive learning and this assignment will also show how learners preferences should be considered as per inclusive learning and teaching.

THEORY.This give an overall explanation for an observation made in the past and it also predicts and explain behaviour however, a theory cannot be well-known beyond all doubt though it can be modified which means that theory can never be thrown out completely even though, a theory may be generally accepted at a time and later invalidated.

CITATION AGr12 l 2057 (A, Gravells, 2012).

MODELS.This is said to be a mental picture that supports to understand some things we cannot see or experience at once. (A. Gravells,2012).

PRINCIPLE: A principle is therefore, a value, belief or ethics connecting to something you do for example, which time a teacher walk into a classroom, the teacher must have a set of values and beliefs that the teacher inspires to achieve and this maybe little things like stating aim and outcome or giving feedbacks and praise to learner after completion of class activities. CITATION Wil09 l 2057 (Wilson, 2009)LEARNNG THEORIES.
This is an organised set of principles that explains the way people acquire, retain and recall information. By reading and knowing different learning theories helps us to know how learning occurs and these principles can be used in getting the techniques and strategies to promote learning.

Task 1Analyse theories, principles model of learning and models of learning preferences.according to Wilson, L (2014), has shown that there are three main schools of theory and there are:
Behaviourism
Behaviourism is founded on principle of stimuli and response. In this theory, individual respond to stimuli. That is things that individual seen and done around them. It is also, a teacher-led activity that means that teacher is always in charge of what is to be done. However, the learners need to be directed in behaviourism and if the individual wants it, a reward or a punishment which will make the learner to act accordingly that will result in a noticeable change in behaviour. According Pavlov (1849-1936), repetitively being shown a subject so as to learn about it. This is the mind’s black box sense which responds to stimulus that can be observed quantitatively by ignoring the chances of thought processes that occurs in mind. Behaviourism is the main work of Pavlov supported by Skinner, Watson and Thorndike. The stimulus response theory used on a dog was how a bell was ringing for couple of times before the food, initially, the dog did not salivate but when the dog noticed the repetitiveness of the bell and the pairing of the food then it began to salivate each time the dog hears the bell rang showing recognition however, the issue here is that this is a problem solving and how a behaviourist could think logically when following responses that means it is open to stereotyping. CITATION Pet14 l 2057 (Petty, 2014)How I can apply this to my teaching:How I can apply this to my teaching practice, I will spell out the rules and regulations concerning these together with the penalty should it be encroached. I will tell my learners what are the expected outcome of the lesson, the rewards for achieving and penalty for failing but I will emphasis more on rewards by telling them what they will expect as a reward should answer all their questions correctly then they can earn a sticker or the learner should be allow to go on a trip to the London eye and at same time, I will explain also, the terms of punishment if the learner was unable to finish his or her work on time then, the learner will not be allow to go on break early until he finishes the work. CITATION Bat16 l 2057 (Bates, 2016).

Critics
Critics has it that according to Watson’s theory make, that the result of stimuli-response will not last long if the stimuli is not repetitive.
CognitivismCognitivism majors in the thought process whereby learners process all the incoming information and not responding to the environmental stimulus. The cognitive theorists like Jean Piaget contend that learning happens through processing information internally. Unlike behaviourism theory that is in the external environment, cognitivism depends on the internal process. The approach focuses on the happenings in the head of the leaners such as the mental processes. Teachers only use the behaviour changes as an indicator of the processes in the mind of the learner. changing old ideas and getting new insights. Some of the applications or examples of cognitivism include linking concepts, providing structure, solving problems, analogies, discussions, and classifying information Learning is a knowledge change that occurs in the memory. It involves experiences reorganisation through. To instruct somebody is a question of getting the person to commit results to mind. Somewhat, it is to teach a person on how to participate in the process that will make the establishment of knowledge possible.

How I can apply this to my teaching:As a teacher, a subject is taught not to produce little living libraries on the subject rather, is to get the learners to think mathematically for themselves, to reflect on matters as historians are going doing to participate in the process of knowledge getting. Awareness is a process and not a product. The path of education in relation to a theory of instruction (1966) the issues here could be that some learners may not have the knowledge to start with, however is this to say that the learner should not be given the opportunity to learn.

Critics
Critics has it that Cognitivist theory grew out of dissatisfaction with the behaviourist approach, which its staunchest critics thought was too focused on accomplishing a particular outcome without developing potential.

Humanist
This happens to be the most current study and it differs from other ones as it is relating directly to the varied behaviours of human learning. Humanist recognises the complexity and uncertainty in life. Humanist theories say that people need to look for the meanings and need personal goals so as to develop autonomy thereby keeping the learner at the centre of learning. This theory focuses on motivation hence many of these theory to teacher are well known to teachers for their work on motivation theory and in humanist, teachers facilitate learning in a conductive learning environment. According to Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) development are in various phases as everyone need to have their basic needs met before moving on to the next learning stage.
Humanists believe that learning should be personalized and child centred. Learners should be encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning and agree their own goals. ‘Teachers are encouraged to help each learner choose what knowledge and skills they want to learn, negotiating a unique ‘learning contract’ or ‘action plan’ for each individual’ (Petty 2004). After each assessment they receive feedback and the assessment plan and Individual learning plan are updated. Humanists feel that for learning to take place the learner/child needs to feel good about them self, be in a place of self-actualization. According to Rogers (1902-1987) who said that ‘the job of the teacher is to generate the conditions and environment for students to develop their own self-concept’ thus promoting experiential learning (Reece and Walker 2009).

How I can apply this: It is part of my role as a teacher to provide a positive, safe environment for my learners, where they feel that they can learn and want to learn hence I must ensure that learners have a conducive and safe environment for their learning. I will have to encourage the use of simulation and role play as this boost socialization and learner interaction. By using group or paired activities the less confident or slow learners will be inspired to take part and get involved knowing that I can nominate or call one of them to give out the information at the end of the teaching.
Learning Preferences modelFleming’s VAK ModelFleming’s VAK model involves three types of learning preferences that include visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic. In the visual category, learners prefer learning through observation or seeing. They use pictures to aid in thinking such as diagrams, handouts, and slides. Auditory preference involves learners preferring to learn by listening either to lectures, tapes, or discussions. Finally, kinaesthetic learners find it interesting to learn by experiencing such as touching and moving. Next, learners can apply the Kolb Model to learn year 2 mathematics through converging and diverting. The converging element would involve learners focusing on technical tasks and solving challenging concepts such as division and multiplication. On the hand, the diverging learners would learn two dimensional and three dimensional by observing and brainstorming.
The Honey-Mumford ModelThe learning preferences or styles of this model include activist, reflector, and theorist. Activist learners like challenges from new experiences and activities as they learn a lot. They solve problems and prefer discussions. Reflectors are learners who prefer learning through watching and thinking about the observed things. They make decisions based on facts. Finally, in the theorist category, the learners learn step-by-step, and they synthesize situations.
The Kolb Learning ModelThe Kolb learning model base on four core styles that include My learners need to know the importance of initial and diagnostic testing from this theory Kolb was able to identify four specific learning styles.
Diverges:
these are learners who like to think about what they have experienced and ask why and enjoy watching others and collecting a wide range of information.
Converges:
these are those learners who like to think about things and ask how things work. They enjoy trying out their own theories to see if they work. They work most effectively solo being methodical and practical and adjusting their theories using facts to ensure efficiency.
Accommodators: these are learners who enjoy more hands-on experiences, and practical learning rather than exposition and rote learning. They work well solo and like to experiment to test their theories.

Assimilators: are thinkers and they like things to be structured and organized. They are ‘serious’ learners who prefer lectures and reading materials to hands on or activities. The Humanist theories were developed to include theories of motivation and communication. Motivation/Communication
Task 1bWays to Apply Theories, Principles, and Models to Teaching, Assessment, and LearningEducation is the central focus in our current society as the economy develops, education becomes of better importance and our learner’s future is highly dependent on their educational opportunities. As many theorists have proven, there is no specified of teaching that targets the whole audience rather, every child has their own distinctive learning style that work for them. Any teacher that takes on the responsibility of teaching must familiarize themselves with the various approaches so they observe the “No child left behind” act and accomplish their duty as a teacher.
Educational theories are vital to our teaching practices. They help us to reflect on the methods and styles we use and recognise our achievements and our failures. They help us to focus on our learners and use strategies to identify their individual learning styles so that we can ensure our schemes of work and lesson plans acknowledge and accommodate those styles so learners have access to a varied and learner centred educational programme. Throughout this assignment I have noticed that my own teaching style incorporates mostly the Humanist, Cognitivist and Behaviourist theories.
An efficient application of theories, models, and principles are significant as they promote faster and effective assessment, learning, and teaching of students especially children age 6/7years in Kg 1. Core subjects such as mathematics require comprehensive teaching and assessment to promote comprehensive learning and this is only possible through the utilization of theories, according to Abraham Maslow (1808 – 1970) who says that progression to the level will not be possible until the lower level of needs is met. Theories can be applied to learning, assessment, and teaching of Kg stage 1 mathematics among 6-7-year olds in various ways.
First, the behaviourism theory is important in the learning and teaching of year 2 mathematics. The behaviourism theory can be applied to learning mathematics through repetitive practice. Repetitive practice will help children to learn vital concepts. For instance, by learning how to count symbols and numbers repetitively, children will familiarise with the practice, which will make them gain a new behaviour of counting numbers automatically without being told.
Second, cognitivism theory can be applied to teaching Kg stage 1 mathematics through focusing on the mind of children. A teacher ensures that the mental wellbeing of the child is in good state to process the mathematical information and data without any challenge. Children store what they have learned in their memory. Cognitivism helps in solving mathematical problems, for example, during teaching of addition and subtraction, as a teacher I will ensure that the cognitive of the 6/ 7-year-old learners is in line with the concepts of addition and subtraction. Mathematics being a technical subject involving statistics, the cognitivism theory makes a learner think broadly when analysing the numbers or shapes. Further, constructivism theory helps year 6/7 children to learn mathematics through constructing new concepts and ideas that relate to the field. The theory dictates that people use their past experiences to create new ideas. Therefore, during the assessment of Kg stage 1 mathematics, a child will use the knowledge he had learned previously to provide valid answers during assessment. For example, in mathematical sequences, a child would use the previous knowledge to determine the value in a sequence, which promote good grades.
Significantly, the models of learning preferences are also essential in the learning, teaching, and assessment of Kg stage 1 mathematics. To begin with Fleming’s VAK model, the model can be applied to teaching of mathematics through its visual aspect as I can use visuals such as diagram and shapes when teaching children mathematics to enable quicker understanding and support. More so, as a teacher, I can use the model by creating discussions and video clips that will help 6/7-year-old children to learn various mathematical concepts such as classifying and sorting, Then, learners can apply the Honey-Mumford Model by preferring the challenges that the mathematical problems create. For example, through preferring or accepting the mathematical problems such as multiplication, fractions, and comparison; children will get a full grasp and understanding of the concepts. Finally, the principle that emotion is an integral component of learning is important in the teaching and learning of year 2 mathematics. Teachers use this principle to create a strong bond with the students. Since mathematics is a technical subject, children can only pass if they relate well to the teachers emotionally.
Task 1CHow the Identification and Consideration of the Individual Learning Preferences of Learners Enhance Inclusive and Comprehensive Learning, Assessment, and Teaching.Learning preferences of a learner is a significant element that every instructor or tutor must identify and take into account during teaching and assessment as it determines the success of the practice. The identification and consideration of learners learning preferences promote inclusive teaching and learning as it enables a teacher to know what the learners prefer and the approaches that they don’t like. Teaching and assessing a learner based on learners’ preferences is critical since it promotes faster understanding and achievement of high grades in the assessments. For example, a learner who prefers learning through seeing will only perform highly if the teaching or assessment is undertaken through visuals such as diagrams and pictures. An instructor who knows that the learning preference of learner is visual will use images, shapes, and other relevant mathematical diagrams that would enhance inclusive and effective teaching, assessment and learning.
However, if a teacher does not identify and take account of the learners learning preferences, it will be difficult to teach and assess the individual. For instance, if the instructor uses lectures and discussions yet the learner prefers visuals, it will be quite challenging for the learner to learn or understand anything and that would result in high failure in the assessments or examination.
Moreover, taking into account and identifying the learning preferences of a learner promotes inclusive teaching, assessment, and learning since the teacher will know all the strengths and weaknesses of the child. The preferences of a learner are his strengths; hence, a teacher will focus on the strengths of the learner during the teaching and assessment to ensure that student performs highly. For example, some of the learning preferences of a child may include observation, conceptual thinking, representations, and explanations; thus, they are the strengths which will enable learners to learn Kg stage 1 mathematics easily without any challenge or difficulty. Besides, upon knowing the weaknesses or things that a learner does not like, a teacher would try to teach the learner in other to eliminate those weaknesses, which will promote inclusive learning and assessment.
Conclusion,
It is obvious that learning preferences are important elements that both learners and teachers must put into consideration to promote an inclusive learning, teaching, and assessment. Learning preference models such as the Honey-Mumford Model depict the need of relying on what the children prefer to improve their excellence or performance. Therefore, learning theories, models and principles are essential in the teaching, learning, assessment of students or children.

TASK 3
Assessment
This is the term given to the process of ensuring that learning has taken place. It is the method teachers ascertain whether or not if the lecture has been effective. CITATION Wil09 l 2057 (Wilson, 2009).

According to Ecclestone (1996). Assessment is the method in which evident of learner’s success is attained and judged.

Assessment in education is the method of gathering, interpreting, recording and using data about students’ replies to a learning task
TASK 3a
Theories, principles and models of assessment analysed.

In this report I will briefly discuss the meaning of assessment, theories, principles and different types of assessment, highlighting some methods of assessment and model of assessments.

Assessment:
Assessment is a method of finding out if learning has taken place as this enable the teachers to establish if learners have achieved the skills, knowledge, understanding and needed behaviour at that particular time towards their learning programme however, it helps teachers continuous judgments and the impacts of your grades and comments have on student’s confidence with teacher’s feedback. CITATION Lin094 l 2057 (Linda Wilson, 2009).

Assessment theory:
is critical in the process of teaching and learning as it serves the use of accountability, also give reason for certification of an award or acknowledgement of competence of the learner and must not take place at the end of the teaching session rather, it should happen at different stages during the teaching. CITATION Bat161 l 2057 (Bates, Bob, 2016).
According to Black and Wiliam (1995) uphold that formative assessment when used effectively, raises the basic standard of achievement across the board while rising the benchmark for everyone however, the two also believe that learners learn more realistically when they are inspired to take on more responsibility for their personal assessment and learning. CITATION Bat161 l 2057 (Bates, Bob, 2016).

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Accessed 15/02/18
Principles of assessment:
Principle is a rule that you will follow; this is an inspiring standard will not be negotiated and some of the rules that will help in making inform choices however, it is good to ensure that assessments are:
Valid: to make sure it assesses what is meant to be assess according to the curriculum in a suitable way. For example, assessment must be meet assessor’s expectation of what the assessor is going to assess and this is where consistent formative assessment value will be shown.

Reliable: to ensure that the assessment is consistent to the anticipated standard irrespective of who give the judgment or when judgement was made. For example, to be reliable that the same mark to a learner can also be given to a different taken the same qualification with exact the situations,
Sufficient: is it enough to cover the performance criteria.

Authenticity: to ensure that individual work is original work of the learner as internet has made it easy for people to copy and paste.

Current: to ensure that the assessment is up to date and written recently. It must be relevant and transferable and by being relevant, means that it has to suit the present need of assessment instead of it being use year after year.

Power of discrimination: ensure balancing the easy and difficult questions to enable the students not be disadvantaged. CITATION Lin094 l 2057 (Linda Wilson, 2009)Models of Assessment:
Formative: this is an informal assessment and is an on- going assessments all through the lesson to establish that the learners are following the lesson. Formative does not contribute to the final mark rather it contributes to the learning in form of feedback. Examples of formative assessment are, questions, presentation, peer and self-assessment, icebreaker etc.
How Formative improve learning:
Formative method of assessment is very vital in raising the learner’s levels of achievement. However, research has shown that formative assessment is one the most significate interventions in encouraging high performance. Formative assessment helps to improve learning and the gains seem to be quite considerably large for educational interventions. For example, with formative assessment, learners can progress to scoring higher grade in mathematics.

Nevertheless, Black and William (1998 and in Part 111 of this study) noted that study on the usefulness of formative assessment is missing in respects to underachieving learner.

Summative: this is a formal assessment that is usually carried out at the end of every lesson to know that the set learning objectives have been achieved and it is used to measure what learners have learnt at the end of a uni. Summative assessment is used to quantify success, reward accomplishment and to provide information for selection and it is also a method for selecting learners for an entry into higher education. Example of summative assessment are, grades, portfolios, tests, exams and final piece.

Diagnostic: this is like formative and is formal assessment and is a method of pre-assessment which permits a teacher to ascertain learner’s personal strengths, weaknesses, knowledge and skill before instruction. Diagnostic assessment mainly used to diagnose learner’s difficulties and curriculum and lesson planning. For example, asking the learners about a new topic, to ascertain their knowledge before teacher properly start the teaching helps the teacher to adjust in other to meet up with individual support needs.

How it improves learning:
it is intended to improve the learner’s knowledge and the level of success but, diagnostic assessment looks backwards instead of looking forwards.it assesses student’s knowledge and the difficulties learner might be having which might brought a limitation in terms of learning if not diagnosed which is use for teaching. CITATION Pet09 l 2057 (Petty, 2009).

Purpose of assessment
Assessment can help grade the achievement of learners, it helps too in selecting applicants for future courses.

It motivates both learners and teachers
It engages both the teacher and the learners
it provides some long-time goals for learners and teachers.

It is used throughout the course to form judgement on whether and to what extent learning has been successful.

According to Black and William (1998), assessment is not only about assisting the teachers in teaching and effective assessment rather is about encouraging and enabling student in taking more responsibility for the procedure.

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TASK 3b
Teacher are meant to set assessment in other to be able to find out where the learner is in terms of meeting their set targets and with a continual learner’s assessment through homework, classwork and end of the assessment like examination together with feedback will help to ascertain learner’s abilities.

Here I am going to write on my assessment methods used during my micro teach according to my teaching targeted audience 6/7-year-old in year 1. I am ensured that the classroom assessment was set in such a way that I was able to make decisions of what methods of assessments to use in such a way that helped me to find out if the learners abilities are up to date with their set goals continually in term with the classwork appropriate for my purpose.

Observation: means to observe learners through a behaviour ladder as this will help the teacher to monitor learners and it also help teachers to know individual learners support need, when to apply it to ensure inclusive teaching. For example, I used observation method of assessment in my micro teach and it helped me to identified and I was able to reorganised my power point presentation ensuring I had lots of interesting materials in different formats which helped to ensure that my visual presentation is well-organised.

Advantage:
I was able to make sure my hand out for class activities were made bold and easy to read.

I made full use different technologies and added so many video clips and pictures which made me to ensure that the auditory learners in my class were position where they were able to hear me well.

Disadvantage:
this may be subjective and expensive and needs to be verified in other to confirm judgment.
Question: This is a formal assessment. Interaction between learners and teachers is a very important characteristic of the classroom. Whether this is to help learner in acquiring a better knowledge or skill in solving problem, question is vital as questions can be asked by both teachers and learners and it is a form of initial assessment too. From questioning during my micro teach:
Advantage: I was able to identify both the fast and slow learners in my class which helped me to ensure inclusive teaching by engaged the fast learners by giving them extra activities to occupied them and attending to the slow learner by given them one to one and also allowing the extra time to finished their work.

Disadvantage: it was difficult to devised the exact question to ask to my learners.
Peer assessment: this is where learners takes responsibility to assess their peer’s work against a set assessment standard and this helps my fellow learners to be engaged in providing feedback to me during my micro teach.

Advantage: This helped all of us to act as an assessor as we had the opportunity to assess each other and feedback and it brought about motivation, it aids reflection and it improves among all the learners.

Disadvantages: we may not know the standard to compared with what we were doing.

TASK 3C and 3D
Choose an assessment method from my teaching practice portfolio and write a report explaining how a range of theories and principles of formal and informal assessment can be demonstrated in the design of the scheme and 3D, provide each of the three contexts presented above
Initial assessment:
Initial assessment is a formal assessment, a starting point of any educational journey and it is done at the beginning before the start of the lesson and the purpose is to establish learner’s knowledge on the topic of the day and to find out the support needs of learners as this will help in making some adjustment to the lesson plan and initial assessment helps the learners to ensure that their personal learning goal are achieved.

In my teaching practice, before the lesson started, I did initial assessment on my learners to ascertain their knowledge on Equality and Diversity Act 2010 and I was fortunate to discover that only few learners have heard about the “Act”, unfortunately, it was the slow learners in my class that had never heard about Equality and Diversity Act 2010 before. Then I was able to utter my lesson plan with adjustments by giving the fast learners few more extra tasks while I applied reasonable adjustment in other to encourage the slower learner achieve their goal.

Peer assessment entails where a learner assessing another learner’s progress. Self-assessment entails learner assessing their personal progress CITATION Gra104 l 2057 (Gravells, 2010). Self and peer assessment can reduce the stress on teachers.

In my teaching practice, I used various assessment methods but I like one method most and that is peer assessment where my class mates did the assessment, initially, I didn’t like it because of too much writing however, I later realised, its effectiveness and motivation.
According to Clarke, (2011) an ex-primary school teacher and a researcher whose work on methodologies and peer assessment in particular describes, different methods of peer assessment as like discussing and comparing quality and checking against its successfulness by means of an open learning objective in other to identify success with different tools for assessment. Clarke’s work has the notion that a good assessment programme needs effort and time and there are three phases that has to followed:
Develop:
Teacher set down strategies for peer assessment together with the process involve in taking the assessment like making the criteria for the success is made known to all that concern to avoid misunderstanding. CITATION Bat161 l 2057 (Bates, Bob, 2016)Establish: teacher give students with online of the measures for success, however, students are permitted to agree on what method to take when carrying out the assessment.
Enhance: learners and teacher work together to recognise what criteria for success are suitable for the planning learning outcome.
How to use peer assessment theory:
According to Shirley Clarke theories, peer assessment has become a significant part of performance evaluation but not only in teaching rather in industry and commerce. Clarke’s idea to show, needs to be:
Transparency concerning the use of the peer assessment which has to be agreed on before the assessment start.

Agreeing on the precise nature of assessment could linked to some part of the learners and teacher’s performance that peer has to comment on.

There must be a willingness to reflect on feedback from the peer as this does not mean that the individual learners being assessed has to agree to the peer’s comments however, a total refusal without considering what is being said useless the effort.

Benefits of peer assessment:
Peer assessment helps learners to decide on the progress which however, improves self-reflection.

Peer assessment bring out learners learning strength and weaknesses for a concise, time efficient learning process.

Peer assessment can help create social skills and self-confidence, while it is useful, it should be supported with other methods of assessment in other to ensure consistency and accuracy in the result and the teacher must have to analyse the findings to ensure objective are met.

In my micro teach, I used peer assessment in my class, however, there is too much paper work but it does bring positive contribution when utilised by the principled and teachers.

Task 4 (Curriculum
Analyse theories and model of curriculum development.

Educationalists use direction to help decide what, when and how to teach. The curriculum guides are centred on models. If we ever thought of where our lesson plans came from then we will look on curriculum model organise our teaching.

Curriculum definition.

“on one hand curriculum is seen as an intention, plan or prescription and on the hand curriculum is seen as the existing state of affair in school” CITATION Ste75 l 2057 (Stenhouse, 1975).

In all organisations or schools will have to supply the syllabus or course content in other to shape the curriculum and when the course content is not available, it is the teacher responsibility to develop his or her own created round the subject that has to be delivered. The teachers target is to recognise the learning needs, abilities and learning styles of the learners which needs to be accomplished before the beginning of learners learning CITATION Lin094 l 2057 (Linda Wilson, 2009).

All these are centred on a curriculum model. A model is actually the first stage in curriculum development. A curriculum model ascertains the kind of curriculum to used. It incorporates educational philosophy, approach to teaching and teaching methodology. The good news is that one can only come across curriculum models, only when involved in designing a curriculum however, it is good for teachers to be used to the model used in their schools.

There are immeasurable models of curriculum, some of them blends of various styles. There are however, two major basic centred for all curriculum so as to make it easy us teacher.

Product
This is centred on dominant model of describing and managing education nowadays where objectives are set, a plan is register with and applied as the end product is measured which has been of influence to education in UK since 1970s. for example, when a student takes a qualification like G.S.C.E that means studying for some years for the programme and the result is measured at the end by the means of examination through grading and is centred on setting of behavioural objectives.

Process
Process model is flexible it helps learners to build a relation between teachers and learners, it makes the teacher a facilitator as it makes them to feel more human, it deals with primary and secondary school and linear model however, process model is wider but can sometimes vague. The curriculum is not a physical thing as this only centre on interaction of the teachers, learners and information, therefore, curriculum is what occurs in the classroom which is a process of communication. Process model have some interactive factors to consider as the teacher need to have a clear picture of their role in the classroom and they are expected of them as a teacher and they should follow the guidelines outline for them by external bodies. Teachers should have a full knowledge on how to deliver the course as these will help prompt conversation which will promote action that will encourage personal and educational growth as these will continually be evaluated.

This approach embraces the Humanistic theories in that the centre is on psychological viewpoint. It assumes a holistic tactic to human existence through researches of meaning, values, freedom, personal responsibility, human potential, spiritually and self-actualisation. The principals that the teacher assumes in the classroom comprise fairness, equality, diversity, inclusiveness which are all meant at inspiring the learner to accomplishing their full capacity.

Ralph W. Tyler’s curriculum model 1949 anticipated that teachers ascertain teaching plans to provide learners the most efficient education.

With the “basic principle of curriculum and instruction” Tyler lifted several of the problem of learning to teachers. Teachers, instead of just learners, had duty for accomplishing an amount of level of performance. Tyler model suggested, in the first place, that educational curricula should enlarge and alter to accommodate learning styles of students, teaching approaches of teachers and to reflect new information and technology in some educational fields. The Tyler model for classroom instruction shown a different approach to educational assessment planning and evaluation that detached from the tradition of just lecturing students than assessing students’ knowledge done with sequences of tests. Tyler’s model suggested that teachers spend equivalent time assessing instructional plans and evaluating student knowledge, CITATION Tyl49 l 2057 (Tyler, 1949).

Product and Process Curriculum
Product
Theorist
Tyler 1949 & Bloom 1965 Process
Theorist
Stenhouse
FEATURES
This emphases on the teacher as an expert.

involved with leading students towards success of an “end state” which is a body of knowledge or competence.

Has a clear definition of a learning result that may be extracted in terms of a Knowledge & Skill Framework?
The end state is frequently well-defined by external agencies.

Stresses on assessment (often summative – albeit incremental) FEATURES
This emphases on role of teacher as facilitator.

Involved with guiding learner to engage in the learning process and develop their ability for learning.
Stresses on means instead of ends.

Boosts learner’s autonomy
More personalised
Belief that learners make exceptional response to learning experience.

ADVANTAGES
Exact meaning of learning outcome which avoid unclear general “statement of intent”
Assessment is exact.

Allows content to be chosen and structured.

Distinct definition of heights of learning / achievement. ADVANTAGES
Stress on engagement and interaction (of teachers and students).

Stress on “learning skill”
Boosts learners to appreciate essential value of some learning activities simply as means to an end).
DISADVANTAGES
At lower stages, behavioural objectives can be the trite.

At advanced stages, behavioural objectives can be hard to outline.

Can be over-prescriptive.

Opposes creativity
Can be limited so far as there is temptation to “teach to the exam” DISADVANTAGES
Lack of stress on suitable content.

hard to apply approach in certain (subject) areas.

Hard to assess accurately.

Can become deeply dependant on tour as a facilitative means (with little resources to backing resources).

Learners may be confused for not having precise guidelines.

ANALOGY
The teacher says: “You are all heading for the similar destination. I have got the map. Stay close to me and I will get you there. CITATION Blo64 l 2057 (Bloom, 1956-1964)ANALOGY
The teacher says: “You are all heading for separate destinations. You may need separate maps, I will show you map-reading skill” CITATION Ste75 l 2057 (Stenhouse, 1975).

Add linear,spiral curriculumTask 4b
Explain ways in which theories and models of curriculum development can be applied in my area of specialism.

The Taba Model
Hilda Taba’s model begins with the curriculum and the teacher’s viewpoint of what should be lectured how, and then tests it on the learners before stating it useful. Hence, she was certain that teachers who teach or apply the curriculum should partake more than the authority in designing and developing curriculum. She used “grass root approach in her model. Therefore, she alleged that teachers should first generate certain teaching- learning units, and a welcoming environment that allows everybody feels like a positive team member to provide suitable approach to child’s education. However, she encouraged an inductive method to curriculum development. I could realise that Taba model is essential, yet inclusive. It suggests five phases to developing curriculum. As she used an inductive technique, her first phase comprises making learning units for work to be considered.
As a math teacher for key stage 1, 6/7 years, I am teaching the young learners the fundamentals that they will continue to use as they continue taking math in primary school. I conducted an experiment that made me to research in depth and to understand the value of the theories and models in our curriculum. It is stated that by the end of key stage 1, my learners should know how to, “multiply and divide multi-digit numbers by a single-digit number, understand and work with simple fractions and decimals etc and be able to apply math to everyday activities”. At such a young age, my learners will be able to introduce many different ways of teaching the children how to solve math problems, because some learners may be visual learners and understand the material taught in class right away, and some learners may need me to sit with them and go through the concept to make sure that they understand the topic. By conducting this research on my different sections of classes, my results were roughly the same; learners learn the way we teachers teach them, therefore if we teach them different ways in which they can attack a problem this will make them to think outside the box and use their mathematical skills, and solve the question. For example, I prepare a lesson, and taught it to all of my learners, I showed them one possible way that my learners could solve the problem, and then I gave them 5 minutes to solve a 2-practice problem, and that when I realised that many of my learners were not sure that they could solve the problem. I then showed them an approach to a second way they could solve the problem, and in an instant, they pick up their pencils and start writing. After observing that most of my student were able to solve the problem with knowing more than one way to do so, I concluded that the more learners think about a question and use previous knowledge and other method to solve the problem, they will always get the correct answer, or at least close to it. After a couple of days, I gave my students a pop quiz on the material that I had taught them in class. Mostly all of my student was able to complete the test, and when I was going through them and marking them, I was about to see the amount of diverse and creative answers, which adds to prove to my research that when learners have different skills on solving problems, they will be able to do better on exams, test and quizzes as well. After conducting this research experiment on my key stage 1 math classes, I was able to suggest to the school authority that we start teaching students more than one ways to solve any questions as we will teach them using visuals, by speaking, and other methods to expand the mathematical skills in which however, I personally was able to see many of my learner’s learner’s improvement in their marks and I also noticed that my learners were more keen and this is something that I think would be beneficial to add to the curriculum as it will give young learners the ability to apply their knowledge to think outside the box. By implementing this new assessment to the curriculum, I feel that it would expand the creative thinking of the learners and also allow them to apply what they know able the topic
TASK 5
Reflection and Evaluation
5a. Analyse theories and models of reflection and evaluation
Introduction
Gibbs reflection cycle deals much with learning. Many people including young children of ages 6/7 years find that they learn best through experience. This is where this theory is useful. A teacher can use it to help children make sense of situations at school and home so that they can understand the areas they performed well and what they could do better in coming days. Gibbs, the reflection cycle model, has the following steps; Description, feeling, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan. On the other hand, Donald A. Schon came up with a theory about the reflective activity. The theory deals much with problem-solving. According to him, reflective practice is the practice by which professionals such as teachers understand knowledge base and learn more from their experience. The paper below is a reflection and evaluation essay on 6/7 years old children using the theories of Donald A. Schon and Gibbs.

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Reflection:
This means learning from experience, mistake and success. This is known as a process of self-awareness, over critical analysis that led to informed decision about development. We teachers must learn how to be honest, constructive and remain impartial when reflecting. CITATION Wil082 l 2057 (Wilson, 2008).

Importance of reflection:
Teacher reflection is very important in the sense that it gives an opportunity for a teacher to inquire into themselves, the learners and our own teaching practice. Teachers that have regard for reflection can understand much of happened cannot be predicted nevertheless knows that they are cannot victims of fate as will be able to make an adjustment in their teaching practice to avoid feeling out of control and this is an important reason why reflection is vita to teaching professionals and this is also important for the success of the curriculum construction, implementation and evaluation.

David Kolb (1984) used frequently to explain learning processes. David Kolb illustrates on how people learn from experiences by trial and error and is a concrete experience while Donald Schon (1983) grouped theory into two and that is:
In -action: this type of reflection is made instantly and adjustments are made quickly for example, during my teaching practise, I realised that I would have brought a board which would have help me to explain my topic better and immediately, I got a board which helped me to illustrate better.

On-action: when reflections are made after a happening. This is more analytical and thought-out method in which forthcoming practice is amended and this is related to Kolb’s option for example, this is after my teaching and I realised that I would have gotten the board to write when I was teaching as this would have made a difference to my teaching practise.

Hence, for reflection in action and on action to be effective, these have to happen in reflective teaching practice with safe environment where the students can put the rule centred knowledge into action and to develop a range of answers and judgements which develop progressively more difficult and sophisticated as they advance to cover a wider series of experiences CITATION Sch83 l 2057 (Schon, 1983).

Critics:
While Schon’s work has inspired many such models of reflection and categories of reflective practice, it has also drawn criticism. Eraut (2004) faults the work for its lack of precision and clarity. Boud and Walker (1998) argue that Schon’s analysis ignores critical features of the context of reflection
The non-reflective notion is used in association with other terms like a reflection in action and inquiry-oriented education among others. Schon insists on the importance of knowledge which is attractive to teachers who accept the fact that particular possession or a specific type of experience is one of the primary defining characteristics of a professional. As such, Schon’s theory acts a way of helping teachers to regain their status. The most uncomplicated component of reflective practice according to Schon ordinary practical knowledge is the. Knowing in action is revealed by action but is something that is hard to describe. Children of 6/7 years manifest their knowledge in actions. The knowledge attained both in school and at home is revealed by their performance on daily routines where the situation of action is not a problem. Surprise rarely interrupt the smooth flow of actions. Schon offers physical skills like bicycle riding, crawling, walking and juggling as examples of knowing in action.
TASK 5B
Reflective account that explains ways in which, theories and models of curriculum development can be applied to teaching 6/7 years old in Key stage 1.

According to Schon theories of professional practice can be viewed as special cases of the theories of action that determine our behaviours, for instance, designers may not easily say what they know but will comfortably put it down in writing yet their actual work proved to be a great deal. In the case of a teacher handling young children of ages 6/7 years, some of the assumptions are that the teachers and the students’ roles are clear and that students need to understand very well that learning and recognizing good behaviours will maximize learning. These assumptions may lead to two directions if valid; the governing variable and strategies to achieve them. In the case of governing variables, the main role of a teacher is to control the whole class and then maximize teaching as the most important factor. To achieve this, proper strategies such as lesson plan, recognizing and rewarding positive behaviour must be part of his/her daily duties activities. Schon says that it is possible for a teacher handling 6/7 years old student to maintain the governing variables and assumptions and engage in the process of learning new strategies that can help improve the students’ performance; by another name, this is a reflection. Schon uses these variables as examples of differences he is trying to create between double loop learning and single-loop learning.
For young children aged between 6 and seven years, there many academic changes that take place. Advancing in learning for them means discovering how to map symbols and signs onto concept to know what mathematics signs such as + means to add. Pronunciations is also another important area that children of ages 6 and seven years must learn very fast. The more children can learn and understand how symbols work the more their ability to learn to solve mathematics improves. Students of this age should also learn to work independently. It is essential to make the students understand that they will require the current knowledge in future. Children create inferences by combining knowledge gained previously and information available from the next situation, for instance, using picture clues to conclude. Doing so allows students of ages 6 and 7 years to move beyond memorization. It is important to note that even young children yet to join schools can make inferences but cannot use this as a tool for learning.
As a teacher in a class composed of children of age 6 to 7 years, it is good to apply Gibbs reflective cycle model in your teaching. Reflecting teaching, in this case, means looking at what one does in the classroom, thinking about how you are doing it and about how it works. By gathering information on what goes in the learning environment, analysing and evaluation this information, teachers detect and explore their practices and underlying beliefs. This may be helpful in improving the teaching methods. Therefore, teaching of young children aged 6/7 years should be reflective as it is part of professional development for the teacher. It also helps in improving the young students’ understanding of this. Most of the teachers think about their teaching most of the times share with and talk to colleagues about it too. However, it is advisable for the teacher to focus on or to discuss what happens in his/her classroom but not jump to conclusions. Again, teachers should apply institution when it comes to solving simple matters rather than consult their colleagues may be misleading.
Teachers may only notice louder students. The reflective teaching of young children is whereby a teacher collects, records and analysis his/her observations and thoughts as well as of other students and then initiate a process on making changes. A lesson that went well can be described and thought of why it went well. If the students failed to understand the language the teacher used to deliver information, it is advisable to think about it what she/he did and what was not clear. If students are not behaving well, the teacher should observe what they are doing and why they are doing so.
The process of reflection begins with identifying the problem and finding out more about your teaching as a teacher. One may decide to focus on his/her feature of teaching or a certain class of students, for instance, how one deals with cases of misbehaviours or how students the young students can be encouraged to speak English, especially in non-English speaking countries. This can begin with correcting information on what goes on in class. Some of the ways to do this include, teacher diary, peer observation, recording lessons and obtaining student’s feedback. The easiest way to begin the process of reflection is diary since it is purely personal. The teacher should have a record of what happened after each lesson. One may also include his/her feelings and reactions and those observed in students. Students of 6/7 years need much attention from the teacher. Recording lessons can provide beneficial information for reflection. A teacher may do things in class that he/she is not aware. Students feedback is also vital since it helps the teachers to know what the students think goes on in class. However, for this age group, it might not be very easy. With information at hand, the teacher should come with an idea on how to change the things that he/she found unusual among students. Talking about what is important and sharing with other teachers may help in solving the identified problems.
Based on these aspects of reflection on practice, this assignment will critically reflect on my own professional development as a reflective teaching practitioner. It will firstly explore the theoretical concept of reflection, reflection in action and reflection on action along with the theory behind critical reflective practices.

Conclusion
The age of 6/7 years is a time when children begin to differentiate between negative and positive feelings and learn how to regulate their emotions. It is essential for the teachers to help them understand their emotions and guide them accordingly. If applied well by teachers, Gibbs reflective cycle can help describe, fell, evaluate, conclude and take actions on whatever the young children are undergoing through in class. Teachers need to assess and reflect on the behaviours of these children accordingly. As it is evident from the above discussion, Gibbs model can help in exploring what the students are undergoing through and come up with better ways of dealing with negative issues and improve the positive ones. From Donald A. Schon theory, one can also conclude that reflective teaching strategy enhances teaching and make the preschool going children understand things even much better. Teachers who reflect on and evaluate on how they deal with 6/7 years old children make learning much easier.