Part A Title Understanding types of cyberattack by knowing its pattern and statistics

Part A
Understanding types of cyberattack by knowing its pattern and statistics.

In this modern era, Internet is so common and slowly became living needs to human beings. Without these technology, humans are like losing their hands, losing the source of convenience. But, what benefits the people also brings disadvantages behind it. With the vulnerability of internets, the attackers perform attacks through the internet by using malicious code to alter computer code, logic or data causing disruptive consequences just to benefits themselves directly and sometimes indirectly, threatening the victims wealth, physical safety and mentality. Recently, the attackers perform attacks such as ransomware attack, DDoS attack, SQL injection and etc. The users of internet are very exposed to the attacks. Who would know, just by connecting to the public Wi-Fi, you might be attacked by the attackers. Who would know, just surfing some unfamiliar website, you might infected by ransomwares. It is dangerous if one has no knowledge about these attacks.

For an example, there was a viral ransomware attack which is called WannaCry spreading through computers worldwide last year. It is a ransomware which encrypts (lock) the user’s files, enabling only certain party able to do the decryption (unlocking) before paying some money. In order to prevent the threats, one has to be well knowing about the types, patterns and impacts of various kind of cyberattacks. In this assignment, some types of cyberattack will be introduced by describing its pattern and impact along with some real time statistics.

1.The DDoS/DoS(Distributed Denial of Service) Attack
Basically, the purpose of DDoS attack and DoS attack are the same. They are used to flood on a system’s resources or say to jam the traffic of a system so that the other users cannot access to the attacked system. But, the difference between DDoS and DoS attack is that DoS attack only uses one single computer and internet, but DDoS uses multiples host machines that are infected by malware controlled by the attacker.

There are few types of DDoS/DoS attack which is the TCP SYN flood attack, the Teardrop attack, the Botnets and etc.
In the TCP SYN flood attack, the attacker perform attacks at the “three-way handshake” mechanism. SYN packets were sends repeatedly to every ports of the targeted server, using fake IP addresses. Unawareness of the targeted system request to establish communication and responds to each attempt with SYN-ACK packet from each open port. Finally, the attackers doesn’t send back ACK packet or sometimes the IP address is spoofed, the SYN-ACK packet will not received by the attacker, leaving the server wait for the acknowledgement of its SYN-ACK packet for some times. During this period, the server cannot close down the connection by sending RST packet ( which uses to terminate communication during three-ways handshake mechanism).Before the connection time out, another SYN packet will arrive, leaving behind a large number of half-open connection. Eventually, the server’s connection overflow table fill, making the real client to be denied, or sometimes, the server will crash or malfunction.

right475615Distribution of DDoS attacks by country,Quarter 3 and 4 of 2017.

Distribution of DDoS attacks by country,Quarter 3 and 4 of 2017.

From the above chart, we can observe that the China had the most attack followed by the U.S and South Korea. We can see that, China’s attacks has slightly decreased from 63.30% to 59.18% from between Q3 and Q4 but U.S and South Korea were in increase which is 12.98% to 16.00% (U.S) and 8.70% to 10.21% (South Korea) respectively.
1651002349502895600Distribution of unique DDoS-attack targets by country,Quarter 3 and 4 2017
Distribution of unique DDoS-attack targets by country,Quarter 3 and 4 2017

According to the chart, China again will be the most attacked target even though it is obvious that the attacks had decreased from 51.84% to 47.53%.Then the U.S and South Korea still topping the chart with 19.32% and increased to 24.10% and 10.37% increased to
South Korea 9.62% respectively. Russia was originally in the chart at Q3 of 2017, but drop out of the chart at Q4.
1727200151130Types and duration of DDoS attack
Types and duration of DDoS attack
The chart shows the types and duration of DDoS attack. According to the chart, SYN attack has the most numbers out of the another 4 DDoS attack. The reason behind this was, SYN attack is simply yet destructive to the targets.

In DDoS attacks, disruptive of essential systems will be made to avoid the systems function properly. This is critical as a normal running system will be affected such as the ticketing system of a train station, the navigation system of an airplane and etc. What if the system of train station of Tokyo got disturb for just 5 minutes? The Tokyo train station has average of 500,000 passengers every day and it will be a big mess when a large number of people cannot travel from one place to another and just stucked at the train station. Then, it will be terrible if the airplanes fly in the sky halfway, and suddenly, the navigation system is disturbed, right? The modern world now is basically works on systems. Without systems, a lot of activities will not able to be carried and many many lives will be threatened.

Other than essential system, the attacker will also target big companies to disturb their systems indirectly benefits them and causing lost to the targeted company. Alibaba, Amazon are the famous virtual shopping for people nowadays. It does not only brought convenience, but also cheaper products to the consumer/buyer. What the attackers trying to do will be performing DDoS attack on the servers, making the servers unable to accessed by the users and hence, losing the benefits. This is said indirectly benefits to the attackers when the company server’s down does not bring any benefits to the attacker, but it is to those competitor of the same field. Maybe, the attackers were hired by those competitor. Through this, the attacker will be rewarded with some benefits.

Malware Attack
A malware attack is a type of cyberattack in which malware or unwanted software that run activities on the your computer system without user’s permission. Most of the modern malware codes like ransomware, spyware, and adware are software programs that can spread to other computers and execute on their own. This is a type of software program used to steal the user’s information such as online banking logins, password, credit card numbers or intellectual properties from the internet. The malware program are separate into different types such as worm, viruses, Trojan horse, adware, spyware, ransomware, backdoor and others.
One of the most famous type in malware attack recently is ransomware attack. According to researchers from Malwarebytes, during Q1 2017 roughly 60% of malware attack were ransomware, with the rest being a mix of ad fraud malware . The objective for this type of attack is to extort money from the victim. This is often achieved by encrypting the user’s data with a password . To decrypt it ,the user need to paid the fee. Ransomeware attack can be design in more advanced technique called cryptoviral extortion, which encrypts the victim’s files in a way that makes them nearly impossible to recover without the decryption key.
996957620000This picture shows the malware distribution by type Q1 2017.
In May 2017, cybercriminals had launch a huge malware attack in the history called “WanaCrypt0r 2.0” or WannaCry which targeted computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system. More than 200,000 devices in 150 countries were affected, including hospitals, banks and major telecom industries. Cyber criminals are asking money of 300$ in the form of bitcoin currency in order to get access of your computer. If you don’t pay up, then after a week the hackers threaten you to permanently delete all your important data files. A report by Cybersecurity Ventures predicted that ransomware damage costs would exceed $5 billion in 2017.This attack was stopped within a few days after the Microsoft had released emergency patches, and the discovery of a kill switch that prevented infected computers from spreading WannaCry any further.

This picture shows WanaCrypt0r 2.0 ransomware provided by cybersecurity firm Symantec, in Mountain View, California, on May 15.

Another type of malware is adware. Adware is software design to display unwanted advertisements up on your screen or makes any alterations on the system or to the browser settings without permission. Adware can be automatically downloaded to your system while browsing any website. some of the typical sign of adware on you computer system are your web browser’s homepage has mysteriously changed without your permission and Website will links redirect to sites different from what you visit. Once adware perform on our device, it might carry out some sorts of unwanted tasks. The software’s functions may be designed to analyze the location and which website you visit, and then display ads related to the type of product or services there. One example of adware program is Premier Opinion. It develop by VoiceFive Inc used to hijack web browsers and displays ads and saving coupons. In addition, It helps publisher to make money from your clicks on promoted stuff.   Hence premium opionion will steal and record the user information like user’s IP address, location , user name & password ,banking data and financial information. It will also disable antivirus and blocks Firewall security in order to run its. Premier Opinion cannot be simply uninstalled as any other program. To remove this program it required aknowledge IT sphere and takes time.

SQL injection is a type of code injection gimmick. It was considered as one of the top 10 web application vulnerabilities of 2007 and 2010. SQL injection is used by others to attack data-driven applications, in which sinister SQL statements are inserted into an entry field for execution. SQL injection must open up with a security vulnerability in an application’s software. SQL injection is well known as an attack vector for websites but also can be used to attack any type of SQL database. SQL injection attacks make attackers to fool the identity, distort with existing data, cause refusal issues such as voiding transactions or changing balances, allow the complete revelation of all data on the system, damage the data or make it otherwise unavailable, and become administrators of the database server.

According to the statistics we found, SQL injection attack was the most common attacks, it represented almost 1/3 of the total amount of attacks, as SQL injection is used to reach the sensitive information or run the OS commands for further penetration of the system.

Top 10 attacks on web applications
If the attacked companies were divided into government entities, financial services companies, IT companies, and educational institutions. We found that in half of the government attacks was to get access to the important data. This is why attacks were directed either against application users or at obtaining access to databases containing such information.

Top 5 attacks on government web applications
When targeting financial services companies, attackers’ main aim was generally to steal money. Most attacks tried to either get access to sensitive data or to get control over the server. In particular, the Path Traversal attack has the potential to lead to disclosure of such data as the server configuration, application source code, identifying information of OS users, and more. This data can then be used to further develop the attack. This attack is used rather frequently to assist in other, larger attacks, this is because this attack does not need much in the way of preparation.

Top 5 attacks on web applications of financial services companies
Attacks on IT companies are rather same, being dominated by SQL Injection and Cross-Site Scripting, which are the main attacks in sectors across the board. SQL Injection can, in addition to obtaining information, be used for other purposes such as defacing websites. Cross-Site Scripting can be used to infect user workstations with malware. Such incidents have a high reputation risk for IT companies, especially for those in the security field.

Top 5 attacks on web applications of IT companies
Attackers against educational institutions oftentimes are students themselves, whether trying to access data (most often, exams) or actively modify it (such as exam grades and scholarship lists). The most common attack in such cases is Cross-Site Request Forgery. With this technique, an attacker can create a special page that contains a request to a vulnerable application, the purpose of which is to perform actions with the authority of a legitimate user. However, the results in this category are vulnerable to statistical noise due to small sample size.

Top 5 attacks on web applications of educational institutions
To discuss about the impact of SQL injection attacks, we conclude that when an IT department found a huge spike in queries to its website and relevant error messages, they can correctly suspect it was the problem of an SQL injection attack. In such attack, an attacker sends deliberately malformed requests to a company’s website wish that the server will malfunction and either return non-public data in response to the request or grant the attacker deep, administrative access to the server. The main impact of the SQL injection attacks can be separated into different part. First will be in confidentiality, since SQL database generally contain the important data, loss of confidentiality is an often problem with SQL injection vulnerability. Second will be in authentication. If poor SQL commands are used for usernames and password checking, there would stand a chance for connecting to a system as another user with no previous username and password. Nevertheless, in authorization part, if the authorization information is held in a SQL database, it may be possible to change the data through the successful exploitation of SQL injection vulnerability. Lastly will be integrity, just as there stand a chance for others to read the sensitive data and may possible make changes or delete the information with SQL injection attack.


6.2.3 Engine Lubrication
The primary function of the engine oil system is to reduce friction between moving parts which would otherwise generate heat if not sufficiently lubricated. Other functions include:
Cushioning effect to engine parts subject to shock-loading
Aids as an effective cooling agent (along with air cooling)
Removing heat from the cylinders
Providing a seal between the cylinder walls and pistons
Carrying away contaminants
Operation of the propeller Constant Speed Unit (C.S.U)
Viscosity describes the resistance of an oil to flow and is primarily affected by temperature. Low temperatures increase viscosity (stickiness), creating a dragging effect, hindering its ability to circulate and perform as it should. At high temperatures, viscosity decreases and the oil becomes so thin that it begins to break down, resulting in rapid wear of moving parts. Because reciprocating engines have high operating temperatures and pressures, we require high viscosity oil. Other qualities of suitable lubricating oil include:
High flash point (temperature at which flammable vapors are released)
High anti-friction characteristics
Maximum fluidity at low temperatures
Maximum anti cooling ability
Maximum resistance to oxidation
Be non-corrosive
Lubrication Systems
Reciprocating engines use either a wet-sump or a dry-sump oil system. In a wet-sump system, the oil is located in a sump that is an integral part of the engine. Whereas a dry-sump system makes use of a separate, self-contained oil tank and engine driven pumps to achieve circulation.
The main component of a wet-sump system is the gear-type oil pump, which draws oil from the sump and routes it to the engine. Located before the oil pump is the by-pass valve which allows unfiltered oil to enter the system in case of any blockage. Similarly, an oil pressure relief valve ensures pressure is neither too high as to allow leaks, nor too low so to ensure adequate lubrication. After the oil passes through the engine, it drains back into to the sump, completing the cycle. In some engines, additional lubrication is supplied by the rotating crankshaft, which splashes oil onto portions of the engine.
An oil pump also supplies oil pressure in a dry-sump system, but the source of the oil is located in a separate oil tank. After oil is routed through the engine, it is pumped from the various locations in the engine back to the oil tank by scavenge pumps. Since changes in temperature significantly affects the viscosity of our oil and therefore its effectiveness, an oil cooler which is placed in the airflow (similar to a radiator) and allows for oil temperature regulation. Dry-sump systems allow for a greater volume of oil to be supplied to the engine, as well as inverted flight, which makes them more suitable for aerobatic and turbine aircraft.
The oil pressure gauge provides a direct indication of the oil system operation. It measures the pressure in pounds per square inch (psi) of the oil supplied to the engine. There should be an indication of oil pressure during engine start. Oil pressure should be kept within the limits. Refer to the Pilots Operating Handbook (P.O.H) for manufacturer limitations.
the oil temperature gauge measures the temperature of oil. A green area shows the normal operating range, and the red line indicates the maximum allowable temperature. Unlike oil pressure, changes in oil temperature occur gradually. This is particularly noticeable after starting a cold engine, when it may take several minutes or longer for the gauge to show any increase in oil temperature.
It is important to periodically check the oil temperature during flight, especially when operating in high or low ambient air temperature:

High oil temperature indications may signal a plugged oil line, a low oil quantity, a blocked oil cooler, or a defective temperature gauge.
Low oil temperature indications may signal improper oil viscosity during cold weather operations.

The oil filler cap and dipstick (for measuring the oil quantity) are usually accessible through a panel in the engine cowling. If the quantity does not meet the manufacturer’s recommended operating levels, oil should be added. The POH or placards near the access panel provide information about the correct oil type and weight, as well as the minimum and maximum oil quantity. Within the filler neck is an oil filter to prevent foreign particles entering the engine compartments. At the bottom of the sump is a quick drain valve to manually remove water or sludge. Checking oil quantity is part of your pre-flight checks and should be done prior to every flight.

In the novel 1984 by George Orwell the central topic idea was rebellion against the authority

In the novel 1984 by George Orwell the central topic idea was rebellion against the authority, the setting of the story presents to us a dystopian society in Oceania where their people are oppressed and are completely banned from expressing sort of Individualism. The main character Winston is citizen of Oceania who works in the Ministry Of Truth slowly he begins to take part in acts that a strictly prohibited he starts by writing in a journal despite the possibility that the thought police were to catch he stays hold to the belief that the government of oceania isn’t as perfect as they are believed to be. This political fiction expressed Orwell’s fear of the totalitarianism and the way it was beginning to impact the society. His vision in where the people believe everything they were told to by the media. In oceania the “Party” is seen as the top authority it uses its authority and technology to put fear over their citizens.

The party also uses the media as a tool of manipulation. Posters and slogans and advertisements

Life is all about overcoming complex obstacles and having the will to make your own decisions

Life is all about overcoming complex obstacles and having the will to make your
own decisions. Life can be very difficult, especially in the 1930s during the Great Depression. In the book Bud Not Buddy by Christopher Paul Curtis, Bud established many rules to help him survive, even though life brought him many misfortunes. Even from being orphaned at the age of 6, Bud has always stood strong and always found some way to survive despite hardships. The book explains how Bud goes through the journey to find his father, traveling alone to Grand Rapids, living in poverty, lacking food and always getting himself into some sort of trouble. He uses his rules to help him survive and conquer the challenges that come his way.
Everyone must have heard the term “Respect Your Elders” but actually people shouldn’t. It isn’t their life to live, so one should make their own decisions and learn from their mistakes in order to survive in the real world. In Chapter 10 of the story, Bud has just met Lefty Lewis and is in his car when he asks Bud for help. Readers are introduced to Rule No. 87, which is, “When a Adult Tells You They Need Your Help with a Problem Get Ready to Be Tricked — Most Times This Means They Just Want You to Go Fetch Something for Them.” Using Rule No. 87 helps Bud to survive because it prevents him from getting into some sort of trouble which can lead to involving the cops. Bud is aware of strangers considered elders asking for his help since he already knows it’s just a trick, that they are just trying to use him. By not following this rule, he might suffer some serious consequences. For instance, Lefty Lewis could ask Bud to steal something and as a result he’ll have to get punished. Bud doesn’t know what’s going to happen if he lends a hand with his problem. The best thing to do is to not help, because Bud should not obey strangers.
Most people don’t really think before they act. It might save one’s life someday if they do. Readers are introduced to Rule No. 29 when Bud finds himself laying on a bed, confused of where he is, as someone is shaking him to wake up. This brings us to Rule No. 29, which is, “When You Wake Up and Don’t Know for Sure Where You’re At and There’s a Bunch of People Standing Around You, It’s Best to Pretend You’re Still Asleep Until You Can Figure Out What’s Going On and What You Should Do.” Using Rule No. 29 helps Bud lay low until he can figure out what’s going on so he can make his next move, instead of revealing himself empty-minded. In addition, pretending you’re still asleep is a great choice because Bud isn’t taking the risk of being harmed since he doesn’t know who might be out there waiting for him. One should pretend to sleep and eavesdrop on the people’s conversations that can help them decide what to do about it. Bud should make a plan to keep out of danger. In a hard time like this everything is unpredictable, Bud doesn’t know what’s coming, so in order to “live” it is very crucial to follow this rule. He is putting his life in jeopardy if he doesn’t.
Everyone has their own way of getting out of an uneasy situation. In Chapter 12 of the story, Bud and Mr.Lewis are in the car when suddenly a Flint police car drives by right behind them. Mr. Lewis then tells Bud to listen very carefully, speaking in a real calm and slow voice. This leads to Rule No. 8, which is, “Whenever a Adult Tells You to Listen Carefully and Talks to You in a Real Calm Voice Do Not Listen, Run as Fast as You Can Because Something Real Terrible Is Just Around the Corner. Especially If the Cops Are Chasing You.” Using Rule No. 8 helps Bud because it prevents him from being in danger or difficulty, besides, listening to Mr. Lewis might make his life more harder than it already is. Bud doesn’t need that right now especially since the Flint cops are chasing them. This helps Bud to survive because he is staying out of a situation that can lead to a big problem. Therefore by following and listening to Mr.Lewis, the police might send Bud back to Flint which Bud does not want after all his hard work getting to where he is. Bud makes the inference that running is the best option because maybe he can get out in time before something terrible occurs which could be that the police finds out that Bud is missing from Flint. He doesn’t need anything slowing him down. In the book Bud also mentioned that Lefty Lewis sounded very suspicious because who would name their child Lefty, at least his mom wouldn’t. Bud knows he shouldn’t listen to Lefty, especially since he sounded very disbelieving and doubtful.
Bud uses his rules in life to survive even through the most challenging times. The Great Depression was a very tough time for everyone and full of unhappiness especially for orphans. Bud had followed the rules: don’t trust adults who ask for help because they are just using you, pretend to be asleep when you have no knowledge of your surroundings and don’t obey adults, just run when they ask you to listen. After surviving all he has gone through throughout his life, Bud knows he is ready to start thriving. Free will is something very important to everyone, to make decisions about life that will later predict your future. People make these decisions to either survive or thrive. People make their own choices that will impact their own future, so live life the best way possible because it won’t last forever.

I propose to implement project management and management process for planning

I propose to implement project management and management process for planning, executing and deliver project successfully for excellent award ceremony for Manukau institute of Technology for 2018. People and Culture team use their planning and control all activities for Excellence award 2018. People and Culture team project is committed to implementing effective project management solution at all levels of their projects to be success.
• Nomination
• Living the value awards
• Outstanding Achievement award
• Teaching Excellence awards
I will engage in analyse and interpreting over eight weeks period, from Quarter 3-4 of 2018 for approximately fourteen hours per week. I will analyse and come up with a solution for development of Excellence award 2018 project progress.
After collection of the data about the Excellence awards 2018 project scenario and my recommended project management and management process solution will benefit the entire award ceremony project. I will analyse it using qualitative and quantitative analysis and proceed with research draft.
At the end of my analysis and research, my recommendation and detailed research project management and management process report to the upper management and everyone involved in this project. It will outline the problems faced by the Excellence awards event project and lesson learnt with current event project. Excellence awards Project would be able to benefit from implementing an appropriate project management and management process solution for project progress.

After validating model numerical

After validating model numerical, simulation of solidification of hollow droplet and dense droplet of ZrO2 impacting on cold substrate of stainless steel are done with initial condition given in the Table 4.1Undercooling is not considered at solid/liquid interface. It assumed that as the temperature of liquid metal reaches to equilibrium freezing temperature(T_M) it starts solidifying. The value of heat transfer coefficient for this case is taken as h = 1×107W?m^2 KFigure 4.1 shows snapshots for spreading and solidification of the dense droplet and hollow droplet at different time. A similar spreading and solidification behaviour of a dense droplet and hollow droplet impacting on a substrate is observed as reported in 9. In both case solidifications start at same time that is 0.2 µs that is clear in figure 4-4, but at later time solid liquid interface growth is faster in the case of hollow droplet this is because of presence of counter jet. It can be also seen that the spreading ratio (defined as ratio of maximum spreading diameter to droplet initial diameter) for the case of hollow droplet is lower than that of dense droplet. This is because, in the case of hollow droplet, due to counter jet some part of liquid come toward axis while other part goes away from axis. But for the case of dense droplet liquid is continued to go away from the axis. The dense droplet

Amino acids are one of the most fundamental building blocks of life

Amino acids are one of the most fundamental building blocks of life. The first step towards the formation of life is the synthesis of amino acids. To solve the puzzle of origin of life on Earth, many scientists and researchers work on the explanation of the very first amino acid creation on our planet. In Zita Martins and her team’s study (Martins et al., 2013), the researchers design experiments to verify whether amino acids could be synthesized when an impact shock is applied to a typical cometary ice mixture, a process known as shock synthesis. They shoot ice mixtures with similar composition to a comet with a steel projectile in a light gas gun to simulate the conditions when a rocky object clashes with icy surface, such as comets, or when an icy object collides with rock surface, such as Jovian and Saturnian satellites. The result is a detectable amount of several amino acids. This work has large implications on the existence of life across the whole solar system. Also, this paper provides a novel mechanism in which the first amino acids on Earth might have been synthesized as opposed to the delivery hypothesis and Earth-pool hypothesis, which would be further explained. Finally, these seemingly contradictory theories in fact complement each other to form a panorama of this very inquiry of amino acids and cooperate to answer an even larger puzzle: when did life first emerge on Earth?
Martin’s study is pretty valuable in the context that many organic substances were detected by Cassini-Huygens. According to Ostro and his group (Ostro et al., 2006), data from radar albedos (percentage of reflection detected by radar) show contamination of near-surface water ice in Saturnian satellites, which could be caused by compounds like ammonia, silicates, and metallic oxides. That is to say, the chemical condition on the surface of these satellites could resemble that of the ice mixture in Martins’ experiments (Martins et al., 2013). It is then possible that amino acids were created when rocky objects collide with these satellites. It is well supported by astronomical observations that there are a great amount of impacts between asteroids and meteorites with planetary or satellite surfaces every year, and one impact in the right place at the right time would create amino acids thanks to the mechanism of shock synthesis. Therefore, it is highly possible that apart from Earth, some other planets or satellites in the Solar System harbor life.
The same point is alluded to in media’s portray of this inquiry (Alan Boyle and Science Editor, 2013), which says that the discovery of shock synthesis increases the possibility that life is widespread across the Solar System. With the help of the media’s interpretation, the public would gain an insight in the origin of very first building blocks of the solar system and be more likely to support further aerospace exploration especially when huge governmental funding is needed. They would also gain an appreciation of the diversity of our solar system now that Earth might not be the only life-harboring planet.
The study of shock synthesis also offers a new mechanism through which the first amino acids found their way to Earth. Organic compounds are common within the parent body of carbonaceous (containing compounds of carbon) meteorites, and these compounds could have reacted under the high temperature and high pressure during an impact, following the pathway provided by Martins’ shock synthesis experiments (Martins et al., 2013). There were questions concerning whether the amino acid products could endure such extreme physical conditions, but it is mostly resolved by E. Pierazzo and C. F. Chyba’s study (Pierazzo and Chyba, 1999) on amino acid survival in large cometary impacts. They argue that small comets would explode in the atmosphere following Tunguska projectile so that not all organics would be destroyed during the impacts. Also, part of the amino acids could endure the shock heating of large cometary impacts so if they are created by shock synthesis, some would remain intact and make further polymerization (combining of amino acids to form proteins) possible. Further, in grazing impacts where the angle of entry into atmosphere is oblique, the peak temperature and pressure during impacts would be lower, allowing potentially formed amino acids to survive.
Interestingly, in the larger field, there are quite different theories explaining how amino acids came into being on Earth. In N.R. Lerner’s study (Lerner et al., 1993), the authors propose the Strecker synthesis as a source of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites to explain their deuterium (hydrogen-2) enrichment (also as D-enrichment, a process where the ratio of hydrogen-2 to hydrogen-1 atoms becomes higher). D-enrichment indicates components from interstellar precursors, so meteorites and comets are probably the carriers of these D-enriched amino acids that in turn result in the D-enrichment of chondrites. Lerner’s experiment shows that the retention of deuterium in amino acids produced by Strecker’s reaction is as high as the retention rate in those chondrites (as much as 50%), making itself a plausible pathway for amino acid synthesis in meteorite parent bodies. This mechanism is different from that proposed by Martins and her team (Martins et al., 2013) since in this case, chemical reactions happen inside the meteorites and comets, and amino acids are carried by these astronomical objects to the Earth rather than being created from organic precursors on the meteorites and comets during the very impacts. In addition, unlabeled amino acids (those not deuterium-enriched) are also formed under the conditions of Strecker reaction, indicating multiple pathways for the synthesis of amino acids in meteorites and comets.
Furthermore, in José Aponte’s study (Aponte et al., 2017), the authors explore the synthetic route of amino acids that leads to their occurrence inside meteorites, including both interstellar and parent body phase. Their analysis suggests that glycine and methylamine could have formed in meteoritic parent bodies, which is backed by carbon-13 (carbon atoms with 7 neutrons) isotopic analysis. Therefore, meteorites inside which the amino acids are already synthesized could have brought the very first glycine and methylamine to Earth, right consistent with the delivery hypothesis that suggests meteorites are carriers of building blocks of life.
Some studies also suggest that amino acids could be synthesized with the ingredients on prebiotic Earth regardless of extraterrestrial influences. Gheorghe Surpateanu indicates in his study (Surpateanu, 2018) that the first proteinogenic amino acids and their corresponding polypeptides (short chains of amino acids linked together) could have been formed starting with three syntones: methylene (CH2), nitrene (NH), and carbon monoxide (CO). These syntones go through a series of multi-step reactions with components from primordial atmosphere of Earth and yield amino acids and polypeptides. The author argues that with the presence of these three precursors (CH2, NH, and CO) in an atmosphere with necessary components such as water, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide, chemical reactions naturally take place and amino acids are yielded. Some of the intermediary products during this process would be analogous to the chemical composition of interstellar precursors, but are purely terrestrial, so the exogenous influence appears less important in the context of this paper. The synthesis of amino acids could be spontaneous given the primordial environment on Earth.
Although many papers present diversely different theories, the mechanism of shock synthesis proposed by Martins and her group (Martins et al., 2013) is also backed by other works. In Yoshihiro Furukawa’s study (Furukawa et al., 2015), the authors indicate that although exogenous delivery of amino acids and nucleobases is the prevailing hypothesis, the variety and amounts of intact organics produced would be limited in that way. They contend that interplanetary dust particles and crater-forming objects (evidence of shock impact synthesis) account for a far higher mass flux of carbon to the ancient Earth than chondrites (evidence of delivery hypothesis). Thus, shock synthesis seems a more plausible hypothesis in this case, or at least it is proposed to be the dominant source of amino acids. Also, their experimental simulation results demonstrate the possibility of synthesis of amino acids and nucleobases under prebiotic Earth surface conditions, which agrees with Martins’ results (Martins et al., 2013). Both Furukawa’s and Martins’ simulations demonstrate that shock impact is a possible source of amino acid synthesis, but Furukawa’s team goes further to argue that this would be a more dominant mechanism than extraterrestrial delivery of organics (Furukawa et al., 2015).
We could see from this debate within the field that every paper has its own focus and point of view. It is common that their different approaches result in different conclusions about a single question: in this case, how amino acids first came to Earth. Some papers focus on the formation of amino acids in meteorites and comets themselves and conclude that these building blocks of life were previously well-prepared in those astronomical objects and then delivered to Earth. Some studies including the one by Martins et al. concern about the creation of amino acids through the process of shock impacts, and thus conclude that shock impacts of meteorites and comets on Earth surface could be the source of amino acids. Other research discusses independent synthetic pathways in the primordial atmosphere and concludes that amino acids could have formed spontaneously on Earth. Indeed, it’s hard to say which paper is “wrong”, since every paper has its own basis and reasoning. It’s more appropriate to think of all these ideas as complementary to each other. There could be more than one mechanism how amino acids found their way to Earth and perhaps all of these hypotheses are true: some were directly delivered by meteorites and comets, some created in the process of impacts, and others formed by terrestrial ingredients alone. These pathways are not really exclusive to each other, but probably form a whole picture about the very inquiry.
Finally, these mechanisms provide insight into when life first emerged on Earth. Ben K.D. Pearce and his team (Pearce et al., 2018) explain in their paper how the information on early meteorite impacts is central to the inquiry of when life first appeared on Earth. The very mechanism of amino acid synthesis and retention could potentially answer a hard question: could life endure the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a period of early Earth history where a huge number of asteroids collided with Earth? If shock impacts could create amino acids, these building blocks of life could have possibly endured harsh environment of primordial Earth where bombardments were so common and kept evolving into the earliest life. E. Pierazzo and C. F. Chyba (Pierazzo and Chyba, 1999) shows that a small portion of amino acids could survive during every impact, so probably during LHB, the earliest pre-life forms across the globe were largely decimated, but some would always endure. Raw materials were constantly refurnished by comet delivery (Aponte et al., 2017) or impact synthesis (Martins et al., 2013) so that a small group of organics could keep evolving without disturbance. And if so, the time taken for life to form on a planet would be significantly longer compared to the case where all previous lives were wiped out during the LHB period.
In summary, Martins and her team’s study suggests it is possible that organic lives are spread across the Solar System and thus shows a future exploration is crucial. Further, the study provides a different point of view on how early life emerged on Earth and contributes to a larger picture. In the end, it turns out that these different theories could also work together to resolve a deeper question concerning the timescale of life evolution and have much further repercussions.?

An Assignment on Percy Jackson and the Battle of Labyrinth This book Percy Jackson and the Battle of Labyrinth written by Rick Riordan is the forth in the Percy Jackson series

An Assignment on Percy Jackson and the Battle of Labyrinth
This book Percy Jackson and the Battle of Labyrinth written by Rick Riordan is the forth in the Percy Jackson series. It is a total fiction composed of classics and the writer’s imagination. It is written for children. As the author is a foreigner, it shows us the style of foreign children. It really keeps with the adventures of Percy Jackson. This time Percy along with Annabeth, Grover, Tyson begin the quest. Annabeth, the daughter of Athena lead the quest. They explore the Labyrinth and they face different kinds of monsters. There are many elements which raise our curiosity. Labyrinth is magical architecture which grows by itself and the Chronas the god of time wants to invade the Camp of Half-bloods and these children are trying to stop their invasion. They fight a man who was blessed by Gaia, the Earth goddess. Percy makes a clever decision of hanging him in the chain of skulls created by him and avoids the help of sand bestowed to him and won over him. The author also emphasize the importance of ecosystem in the river ‘s statement how it can’t be used to clean a very stenching horse stable and in the story Percy won the cleaning of stable challenge by exploring his poet with water as he is the son of sea god Poseidon. Many things seems unbelievable to an adult but it is a wonderful book for children as flavor their imagination with many details of architectures, weird persons and intellectual as well as a physical fight. It emphasizes the importance of diligence through the search for god Pan who is the god of wild through Grover. It also says the point of Looking beyond the most through Rachel Elizabeth Dare. She is the person who comes in the middle but really play a major role for the campers to complete their quest. The revelation of Quintus as Daedalus the inventor is a thing which adds surprise and the revelation Chronas’s Mortal form in Luke’s appearance is also an interesting point. But Nico understanding the true nature of Percy is a good thing in the story. At last all of them involve in the war. Nico and luckily Quintus, the Daedalus who assumed the automaton form also comes to rescue the camp. They temporarily stopped the invasion by destroying the Labyrinth but the story ends with the surprise knot which will be unfolded in the next book, Percy Jackson and the Last Olympian. The main knot is the prophecy of saving or destroying world at the age of sixteen. It also unnecessarily introduces Calypso but we don’t know what the author going to do with that character. The introduction of Rachel Dare Elizabeth seemed so small but in this she almost played a major role. Still she holds her mystery. The book will be a good entertainer if you read in the leisure period and it will sure help to train your horse of imagination.

Consequences of schizophrenia 1

Consequences of schizophrenia
1. Mortality:
Although schizophrenia is not in itself a fatal disease, death rates of people
with schizophrenia are at least twice as high as those in the general population. The excess mortality has been related in the past to poor conditions of prolonged institutional care, leading to high occurrence of tuberculosis and other communicable diseases (Allebeck, 1989). This may still be an important problem wherever large numbers of patients spend a long time in crowded asylum-like institutions. However, recent studies of people with schizophrenia living in the community showed suicide and other accidents as leading causes of death in both developing
and developed countries (Jablensky et al., 1992).

2. Social disability:
According to the International classification of impairments, disability and
Handicaps (WHO, 1980) impairment represents any loss or abnormality of
psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function, while disability
is any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform
an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for an
individual in his or her socio-cultural setting.
In mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, disability can affect social functioning
in various broad areas (Janca et al., 1996), namely:
• self-care, which refers to personal hygiene, dressing and feeding;
• occupational performance, which refers to expected functioning in paid
activities, studying, homemaking;
• functioning in relation to family and household members, which refers to
expected interactions with spouses, parents, children or other relatives;
• functioning in a broader social context, which refers to socially appropriate
interaction with community members, and participation in leisure and other
social activities.

Data from European and North American studies show persisting disability of
moderate or severe degree in about 40% of males with schizophrenia, in
contrast with 25% of females (Shepherd et al., 1989). Substantially lower
figures have been found in India, Africa and Latin America (Leff et al., 1992).
Global assessment of disability, however, hides wide variations across life
domains, which can be affected in different ways.

There is good evidence that for most patients nature and extent of social
disability are more relevant as outcome indicators than clinical symptoms.

3. Social stigma:
Social stigma refers to a set of deeply discrediting attributes, related to negative attitudes and beliefs towards a group of people, likely to affect a person’s identity and thus leading to a damaged sense of self through social rejection, discrimination and social isolation (Goffman, 1963). Stigma is strongly linked with the label of mentally ill and is, to a certain extent, unrelated to the actual characteristics or behaviours of those stigmatized. (Desjarlais et al., 1995).

4. Impact on caregivers:
The available data show that the proportion of persons with schizophrenia living with their relatives ranges between 40% in United States to more than 90% in China ( Torrey and Wolfe, 1986; Xiong et al., 1994).

Various aspects of impact on caregivers should be considered, including:

• The economic burden related to the need to support the patient and the loss of productivity of the family unit;
• Emotional reactions to the patient’s illness, such as guilt, a feeling of loss and fear about the future;
• The stress of coping with disturbed behaviour;
• Disruption of household routine;
• Problems of coping with social withdrawal or awkward interpersonal behaviour;
• Curtailment of social activities.

5. Social costs:
In recent years a major effort has been made towards the quantification of the
global social burden of all illnesses and injuries, taking into account not only
mortality but the extent of disability and allowing comparisons between
different categories of illness. The measure of disability-adjusted life years
(DALYs) lost has been used as a health status indicator (Murray and Lopez,
1996). Although this approach may not be completely suitable for most
mental disorders, including schizophrenia, because of their variable course and the fluctuating nature of the related disability, it enables social scientists and policy-makers to put the burden associated with schizophrenia within a comprehensive public health framework.
Management of schizophrenia is a protracted or more precisely a life time process that requires effective pharmacotherapy along with other lines of supportive therapy especially psychotherapy. Control of the disease may become a difficult target as other health challenges interfere. Schizophrenic patients may suffer co-morbid conditions especially diabetes mellitus, increased weight and serious cardiovascular disorders. On the other hand, symptoms of the disease not only affect the patients but also affect their families and “surroundings”. Therefore, it is sometimes important for physicians to provide guidance to all persons affected by the disease. Psychosocial and family interventions can improve outcomes.

With proper treatment, patients can lead productive lives.

Treatment can help relieve many of the symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the majority of patients with the disorder have to cope with the symptoms for life.
Psychiatrists say the most effective treatment for schizophrenia patients is usually a combination of:
-psychological counseling
-self-help resources
Anti-psychosis drugs have transformed schizophrenia treatment. Thanks to them, the majority of patients are able to live in the community, rather than stay in a hospital.

The most common schizophrenia medications are:

• Risperidone (Risperdal) – less sedating than other atypical antipsychotics. Weight gain and diabetes are possible side effects, but are less likely to happen, compared with Clozapine or Olanzapine.
• Olanzapine (Zyprexa) – may also improve negative symptoms. However, the risks of serious weight gain and the development of diabetes are significant.
• Quetiapine (Seroquel) – risk of weight gain and diabetes, however, the risk is lower than Clozapine or Olanzapine.
• Ziprasidone (Geodon) – the risk of weight gain and diabetes is lower than other atypical antipsychotics. However, it might contribute to cardiac arrhythmia.
• Clozapine (Clozaril) – effective for patients who have been resistant to treatment. It is known to lower suicidal behaviors in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of weight gain and diabetes is significant.
• Haloperidol – an antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia. It has a long-lasting effect (weeks).

The primary schizophrenia treatment is medication. Sadly, compliance (following the medication regimen) is a major problem. People with schizophrenia often come off their medication for long periods during their lives, at huge personal costs to themselves and often to those around them.

The patient must continue taking medication even when symptoms are gone. Otherwise they will come back.

The first time a person experiences schizophrenia symptoms, it can be very unpleasant. They may take a long time to recover, and that recovery can be a lonely experience. It is crucial that a person living with schizophrenia receives the full support of their family, friends, and community services when onset appears for the first time.

Various attempts have been made to classify symptoms of schizophrenia in order to define meaningful subtypes of the disorder. In the past 20 years the distinction between the two broad categories of positive and negative symptoms gained widespread popularity (Crow, 1980). However, more recent multivariate analysis has suggested not two but three symptom clusters: reality distortion, disorganization and psychomotor poverty (Liddle, 1987).


4. Specifically, what would you suggest Jennifer do now with respect to her company’s pay plan?
Ans: According to the case, Mr. Carter conducted some informal inquiry and made an informal payment structure. Informal structures are easy and less expensive than a formal structure, but they have some problems like sometimes they might be ambiguous and unfair and there might be biases in the payment structure what we can notice in this case.
Regarding these issues, first, we suggest Jennifer conducting a formal inquiry rather than informal and establish an obvious and fair payment structure.
After that, we would suggest not to follow the policy of paying 10% above prevailing rates rather they can offer some incentives to those who are performing better. This system can encourage employee’s loyalty and motivate them to perform better to get more. Most importantly, it would reduce the cost.
Finally, the informal policy of paying men about 20% more than women shows biases. It looks unfair to the women who are doing the same job. In that case. Jennifer can follow a working benchmark during paying her employees. And the incentive system would also work well in this matter.

By Md. Adnan Elahi – 1611981030